Outline Week 9 Spring 2016 (1)

Outline Week 9 Spring 2016 (1) - ANTH 1500 lecture outline...

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ANTH 1500 lecture outline: Week 9 Under water Archaeology and Ulu-Burun Underwater sites: Site types include submerged settlements and shipwrecks Current focus on “maritime,” “nautical,” or “shipwreck” archaeology Require modified excavation techniques: scuba diving, underwater surveying and documentation equipment, solid grid, water dredge, air-lift. Sometimes incredible preservation of organic remains due to anaeorobic conditions Organic preservation - The Vasa (Stockholm, Sweden) (Map#1) The Vasa was the royal Swedish flagship (1628 CE) Sank on its maiden voyage 2 miles from the ship yard The preservation of the wood structure is close to perfection. George Bass (Texas A&M) Developed standardized techniques for excavating shipwrecks in 1960s (Late Bronze Age wreck at Cape Gelidonya) Institute of Nautical Archaeology, Center in Texas A&M, secondary center in Bodrum, Turkey Ulu Burun: near Kaş, Modern day Turkey (Map#2) Site discovered in 1982 by Mehmet Çakır (Turkish sponge diver) Lies 45m below sea level Excavated 1983-1994 by George Bass and Çemal Pulak Contents indicate merchant ship 50 feet (15 -16 m) long
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Made of Lebanese Cedar (found in Lebanon, Turkey, and Cyprus) Constructed with mortise and tenon joints Dendrochronology: dates ship to 1305 BCE Cargo suggests later than 1370 BCE – Queen Nefertiti scarab (ca. 1370 BCE – ca. 1330 BCE) Reconstruction of the ship based on designs seen in Egyptian tomb paintings, believed to be of Semitic origin (Canaanite) Ulu-Burun shipwreck: Provides primary evidence for Late Bronze age trading; The Mediterranean Sea as the I-95 (highway) of Ancient times Ulu-Burun shipwreck: Anchors : 26 anchors in total; 24 large sandstone (ca. 220 kg); 2 small limestone anchors (21 and 25 kg) Jewelry and religion : Nude goddess with gazelles (Canaanite fertility, war, and household goddess Ashtoret?); symbol of Canaanite storm god (Ba’al); falcon with hooded cobras; shellfish rings.
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