Outline Week 7 Spring 2016

Outline Week 7 Spring 2016 - Anth 1500 lecture outline Week...

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Anth 1500 lecture outline: Week 7 Megalith Large stone monument 4000 BCE: Appear in Great Britain, Mediterranean, and Atlantic parts of Europe Last for 2000+ years until ca. 2000 BCE Most dated by 14 C analysis of associated artifacts Likely built by Neolithic farmers (seasonal labor) Although lecture focuses on Europe, also common in the Near East, Africa, and Eastern Asia (China, Korea, and Japan). Menhir A single vertical standing stone (sometimes worked, but not always) Frequently found in alignments, but not always. Difficult to date Dolmen Comprise 2–3 standing stones with a large stone on top Often used as a burial chamber (not used as a dwelling) Alignment A group of arranged menhirs Henge Occur in Great Britain only. A ritual monument consisting of a circular area, delimited by a ditch. Many henges have burials, pits, circles of upright stones (e.g., Avebury and Stonehenge) or timber posts (e.g. Woodhenge). Usually associated with Late Neolithic pottery. Trilithon Two upright stones with a third placed on top (lintel) Sarsens Sandstone blocks found in Wiltshire Sites Carnac: Brittany, France (Map #1) Extensive alignment of menhirs in 13 parallel lines (originally ca. 4000. 3000 remain standing) Extends for ca. 4 miles May have taken 1000s of years to build Avebury: Avebury, Wiltshire, England, 2600 BCE (Map #2a Largest henge in Europe, the trench is 6 people deep, cut into limestone using stone-tools; the trench encloses 11ha. Large circle of Sarsen stone containing 2 smaller circles Preserved today due to actions of Sir John Lubbock (Later Lord Avebury) Large circle of Sarsen stone containing 2 smaller circles
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