Lecture_10-13 - BIOL 214 GENES, ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION /...

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Suppl. to Lecture 17, page 1 BIOL 214 GENES, ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION / PEPPER LECTURE 20 (October 13, 2006) SUPPLEMENT READING ASSIGNMENTS: “Mutation and Genetic Variation,” pages 197-207. “Effects Of Mutations On Amino-Acid Coding Sequences,” see below. KEY CONCEPTS: Increase in predicted gene number is correlated with increased complexity Where do new genes come from? Gene duplication Whole genome duplication DNA replication Partitioning of chromosomes into daughter cells DNA replication without partitioning Retroduplication Tandem duplication (unequal cross-over) Purifying selection Fates of duplicated genes: Pseudogene (“fossil gene”) accumulates mutations, non-functional Subfunctionalization (function is divided up): May involve minor changes in functional properties of the gene product May involve changes in pattern of expression: When during development gene is expressed In what cells, tissues, organs a gene is expressed Under what environmental conditions a gene is expressed May involve changes in where protein gene product is localized in the cell (e.g. nucleus, cytoplasm, cell wall, etc. Extra copy acquires a novel function through mutation Gene structure Coding sequences and non-coding sequences Exon (Eukarya) Open reading frame, ORF (Bacteria, Archea) Translation start codon, ATG (AUG) Translation stop codons. TAA, TAG, TGA (UAA, UAG, UGA) Intron (Eukarya) mRNA processing
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course BIOL 214 taught by Professor Pepper during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.

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Lecture_10-13 - BIOL 214 GENES, ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION /...

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