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Study Guide, Chapters 18-20

Study Guide, Chapters 18-20 - CHAPTER 18 A People...

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CHAPTER 18 A. People Portuguese: want to get rid of middlemen, control trade B. Places Sahara Senegambia The Middle Passage C. Terms slavery freedmen sugar 5,000,000: trans-Saharan number 10,000,000: middle passage number CHAPTER 19 (Part 1) A. People Mongols: founders of Yuan dynasty Seljuk Turks o 11 th century o Fall in 1100s Uthman/Osman: leader of the Ottoman Turks, ruled 1299-1326 Ottoman Turks o Frontier state – made them more rugged and aggressive, more religious o Expanded territory 1359-1451 o Ottoman rulers “border chiefs” and leaser of the gazis: frontier fighters of the holy way (jihad) o Jitza/tax – Christians and Jews were allowed to practice their own religion o 1400, they become the middlemen in trade between Europe and Asia o Military was superior to the European militaries – more organized, more disciplined, larger Mehmet II o 1453 – Siege of Constantinople Constantine XI – 10,000 troops, well fortified city Mehmet II – 80,000-100,000 troops, large fleet Constantine is last emporer o At Constantine, Mehmet: Changes name to Istnabul Appoints officials to adapt the city to Ottoman ways Orders wealthy Ottomans to pay for building projects – mosques (mosque at Aya Sofya), bathhouses, fountains Appointed Greek Patriarchs to oversee Greek community
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o 1453: up to northwest part of Anatolia o 1481: under Mehmet, all of Anatolia, and captured Otranto (port
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