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Unformatted text preview: AEM1200, Introduction to Business Management. AEM1200, Monday 2/2
The Hawthorne effect Theories of motivation Motivation Abraham Maslow and the hierarchy of needs Frederick Herzberg and motivating factors Theories X, Y and Z Expectancy Theory Equity Theory Which is the best motivator? (It depends) A.) Care B.) Force - if at military C.) Money Motivation Motivation
The set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes The people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal; people
Initiation of effort is concerned with the choices that people Initiation make about how much effort to put into their jobs; make Direction of efforts is concerned with the choices that people make in deciding where to put forth effort in their jobs; make Persistence of efforts is concerned with the choices that Persistence people make about how long they will put forth effort in their jobs before reducing or eliminating those efforts. jobs Job Performance = Motivation X Ability X Situational Constraints Motivation Scientific Management and the Hawthorne Studies and
Time motion studies Belonging Industrial engineering Empowerment Piecework payrates` Caring Studies of Motivation Studies
Douglas McGregor, William Ouchi and Theories Douglas X, Y and Z; X, Abraham Maslow and the hierarchy of needs; Frederick Herzberg and motivating factors; Victor Vroom and expectancy theory; J.Stacy Adams and Equity Theory. X, Y and Z X, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow’s Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Herzberg’s Comparing Maslow and Herzberg Comparing At what level of the Maslow hierarchy of needs does the hierarchical/bureaucratic paradigm work best? A.) Self-actualization needs B.) Esteem needs c.) Social needs d.) Safety needs e.) Physiological needs Generally bureaucratic paradigm work best at lower level of hierarchy Job Oriented Motivational Techniques Job Job Enrichment/Redesign
• • • • Skill Variety Task Identity/Significance Autonomy Feedback Job Simplification Job Enlargement Job Rotation Job Enrichment Job
Job variety The extent to which a job demands different skills; The degree to which a job requires doing a task with a visible outcome The from beginning to end; from The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work The of others in the company; of The degree of freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling The work and determining procedures; work The amount of direct and clear information that is received about job The performance. performance. Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback Expectancy Theory – Victor Vroom Expectancy
Expectancy The belief that effort will lead to good performance The belief that good performance will be rewarded The rewards offered are ones the individual in The question really wants question Instrumentality Valence Effort = E x I x V If either expectancy, instrumentality, or valence are If low, effort will be low low, Expectancy Theory Expectancy
1) Determine Rewards Valued 1) Determine Standards 1) Ensure Standards Attainable 1) Tie Rewards To Performance 1) Are Rewards Considered Adequate? Equity Theory Equity
Equity theory suggests that individuals evaluate the ratio Equity of their inputs to outcomes for a given job in relation to other, referent employees. other, (1) perceived inequity creates tension in the (1) individual individual (2) the amount of tension is proportional to the magnitude of the perceived inequity magnitude (3) the tension created in the individual will motivate (3) him or her to reduce it him (4) the strength of the motivation to reduce inequity (4) is proportional to the perceived inequity is Equity theory suggests that overrewarded individuals Equity might be motivated to increase their performance and underrewarded individuals to decrease their performance in an effort to restore equity. Takeaways Takeaways
Management attention and consideration is a Management significant source of employee motivation and satisfaction; satisfaction; Based on psychology and organizational Based research, it is possible to take actions that increase employee motivation and satisfaction; increase ...
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- Spring '06