Wiedmann__FDSC_1010__10_06_2008_

Wiedmann__FDSC_1010__10_06_2008_ - Application of...

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Application of Biotechnology (Genetic Engineering) to Foods Martin Wiedmann Department of Food Science Cornell University October 6, 2008 [email protected]
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Headlines: Friday, September 19, 2008
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Genetic engineering & genomics in food product development: goals Provide for better, more efficient, and more consistent production of raw materials Make crops resistant to insects; make animals resistant to disease Make better raw materials Make plants that contain (more) health-promoting compounds (vitamins); make animals that produce raw materials (meat, milk) that contain (more) health-promoting compounds or less compounds which are likely to have adverse health effects (remove allergens) Develop lower cost, more efficient methods to make additives (acids, flavor compounds) or make new additives Understand the genetic make-up of the consumer and/or of different consumers and make foods for specific consumer groups (e.g., ethnic groups; groups with specific genetic traits)
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Genomics, biotechnology, genetic engineering... Genetic engineering: Tools that allow researchers to specifically TARGET genetic manipulation of plants, microbes, and animals Targeted genetic engineering vs. more random and time consuming traditional breeding practices Allows addition, deletion, or control of very specific genetic targets No species restrictions - expanded gene pool Biotechnology is the use of living organisms to modify plants, animals or their products: Example: beer brewing, cheese making Genomics: The study of whole genomes and their expression
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The genome All of the genetic material in a single organism Holds the code to all proteins and everything made by the organism Genome can be a single chromosome (piece of DNA) or can be organized in multiple chromosomes Bacteria usually have a single chromosome Mammals have multiple chromosomes The organizational unit within a chromosome is the gene (one gene – one protein model)
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Genome sequencing Complete DNA sequence of human genome has been determined Genome sequences for other mammals, including cattle, chicken as well as plants (e.g., rice) are also being worked on or have been completed) Currently efforts are focused on determining genetic variation between different humans and the effect of variation on health etc. Very inexpensive tests are being developed to allow determination of genetic variation present in a specific individual and the effect this variation has on his or her likelihood to develop specific disease, react negatively to certain foods or environmental insults etc.
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Definition of genetically engineered organisms Plant, animal or microbe whose DNA has been altered, usually (but not always) by insertion
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