Chapter 7

Chapter 7 - Chapter 1 Can get micro book, buy e-book, or...

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Chapter 1 Can get micro book, buy e-book, or buy each chapter Wwnorton.com Can go to the website and look up the book. There is  a study space. It gives question and  flashcards Tuesday, January 13, 2009 9:00 AM Microbiology - study of organisms too small to be seen with naked eye (ex: bacteria, viruses,  protozoans, fungi)    Most are not harmful (most are beneficial) They are everywhere!   Importance Medicine  Make antibiotics  Control disease Agriculture Nitrogen fixing bacteria (nodules filled with “Rhizobium”) Food Industry Beer, wine, bread, yogurt, pickles, Genetic Engineering Using bacteria to make commercial products Insulin, growth hormone, vitamins Crops resistant to pests, heat, pesticides, etc. Keeps us Alive Recycle nutrients Produce vitamins Degrade organic matter Causes Disease  HIV, colds, STD’s, flu, food poisoning   Chapter 1: Microbial Life: Origin and Discovery  What Is a Microbe? 6 major groups studied by microbiologists Prokaryotes 1. Bacteria 2. Archaea
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Eukaryotes 1. Algae (water) 2. Protozoa (water also) 3. Fungi (bread mold for example. A lot look fuzzy.) Viruses - non cellular. They do not have a membrane, or nucleus. When not  inside a host cell, they are inert.     Microbes Shape Human History Microbes affect food availability Destroy crops, but preserve food  Microbial diseases change history Black plague in Europe Smallpox in America More soldiers have died from infections than battle wounds TB, AIDS   Discovery of Microbes Light microscope invented in 1600s  Mid-1600s: Robert Hooke observes small eukaryotes 1st to use the term "cells"   Antoni van Leeuwenhoek -1676  Built simple microscopes Described  "wee animalcules" Published first drawings of bacteria (prokaryotes)   Microbes Are Living Organisms Microbes arise only from other microbes No spontaneous generation 1861: Pasteur shows that microbes do not grow in liquid until introduced from  outside Spontaneous generation -idea that living things arise from non-living matter He disproved this using broth in swan necked flasks (pasteur flasks) Sterilized broth by boiling, bent necks of flasks so that air could enter but microbes  would be caught in neck.   
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   led to development of methods for controlling growth of microorganisms Pasteurization – use of moderate heat to reduce the number of microorganisms.  Used in foods like milk, wine, oysters "Germ theory of disease" - they started thinking that microorganisms may also be  causing diseases Resulted in vaccines for anthrax, fowl cholera, rabies
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2009 for the course BIOL 2051 taught by Professor Brininstool during the Spring '07 term at LSU.

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Chapter 7 - Chapter 1 Can get micro book, buy e-book, or...

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