Chapter 8

Chapter 8 - Chapter 1 Can get micro book, buy e-book, or...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Can get micro book, buy e-book, or buy each chapter Wwnorton.com Can go to the website and look up the book. There is a study space. It gives question and flashcards Tuesday, January 13, 2009 9:00 AM Microbiology- study of organisms too small to be seen with naked eye (ex: bacteria, viruses, protozoans, fungi) Most are not harmful (most are beneficial) They are everywhere! Importance Medicine Make antibiotics Control disease Agriculture Nitrogen fixing bacteria (nodules filled with Rhizobium) Food Industry Beer, wine, bread, yogurt, pickles, Genetic Engineering Using bacteria to make commercial products Insulin, growth hormone, vitamins Crops resistant to pests, heat, pesticides, etc. Keeps us Alive Recycle nutrients Produce vitamins Degrade organic matter Causes Disease HIV, colds, STDs, flu, food poisoning Chapter 1: Microbial Life: Origin and Discovery What Is a Microbe? 6 major groups studied by microbiologists Prokaryotes 1. Bacteria 2. Archaea Eukaryotes 1. Algae (water) 2. Protozoa (water also) 3. Fungi (bread mold for example. A lot look fuzzy.) Viruses - non cellular. They do not have a membrane, or nucleus. When not inside a host cell, they are inert. Microbes Shape Human History Microbes affect food availability Destroy crops, but preserve food Microbial diseases change history Black plague in Europe Smallpox in America More soldiers have died from infections than battle wounds TB, AIDS Discovery of Microbes Light microscope invented in 1600s Mid-1600s: Robert Hooke observes small eukaryotes 1st to use the term "cells" Antoni van Leeuwenhoek -1676 Built simple microscopes Described "wee animalcules" Published first drawings of bacteria (prokaryotes) Microbes Are Living Organisms Microbes arise only from other microbes No spontaneous generation 1861: Pasteur shows that microbes do not grow in liquid until introduced from outside Spontaneous generation-idea that living things arise from non-living matter He disproved this using broth in swan necked flasks (pasteur flasks) Sterilized broth by boiling, bent necks of flasks so that air could enter but microbes would be caught in neck. led to development of methods for controlling growth of microorganisms Pasteurization use of moderate heat to reduce the number of microorganisms. Used in foods like milk, wine, oysters "Germ theory of disease" - they started thinking that microorganisms may also be causing diseases Resulted in vaccines for anthrax, fowl cholera, rabies Germ Theory of Disease Way back when people though they got sick from things like evil spirits Observations: germs can infect and grow on food Hypothesis: Can germs infect and grow on people?...
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Chapter 8 - Chapter 1 Can get micro book, buy e-book, or...

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