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Unformatted text preview: Summary of Fermentation • Partial oxidation of glucose to pyruvate- From one glucose molecule 2 ATP are produced • Substrate level phosphorylation yields ATP • Reduction of pyruvate- Regen erates NAD+- Fermentation products- Figure 17-50 • Som e a n a erobic eukaryotes use hydrogenoso m es for substrate level phosphorylation to g en erate ATP. • Figure 14.4b: production of ATP takes place in the hydrogenoso m e in Sum m ary of respiration • From one glucose molecule 38 ATP are produced • Complete oxidation of glucose to CO2- Oxidation of pyruvate by citric acid cycle • Uses electron transport syste m and ATPase Citric Acid Cycle • CO2 releas ed • NADH a nd FADH g en erated • Carbon interm ediates used for biosynthesis • Figure 5.22a Acetyl-CoA is a to carbon molecule, none of the original N in glucose is re m aining it is used up in. Do not n e e d to m e morize, just know the Electron transport syste m s • Transfer electrons to g en erate ATP • Initial electron donor is either an organic or inorganic co mpound • Terminal (final) electron acceptor is n e e d ed Aerobic respiration O2 Anaerobic respiration NO3, SO4 or other non-oxygen molecule *Electron carriers* Protein electron carriers • NADH d ehydrogen as es - Bind NADH, accepting 2 e ectrons (e-) and 2 protons (H+) - Release NAD+, donat e 2 e- and 2 H+ to flavoprotein • Flavoproteins- Receive the 2e- and the 2 H+ from HADH dehydrogen as e - Donate 2 e- to next electron carrier- Figure 5-15: flavoprotein • Iron sulfur proteins- Receive e- a nd donat e e-- Numb er of e- transferred dep ends on nu m b er of iron ato ms • Cytochrom es- Have a single iron ato m that accepts/donat es e-- Figure 5.16- Figure 5.17 *Non-protein electron carriers* • Quinones- Receive 2e- and 2 H+- Donate 2 e- to next electron carrier- Figure 5.18- Figure 5.19: example of an electron transport chain or also called electron transport system. Primary electron donor-> electron carriers-> terminal - Figure 5.20: electron transport chain generates proton motive force Electron transport chain • Figure 17.37a: Aerobic respiration • Figure 17.37b: Anaerobic respiration • Figure 17.35: anaerobic respiration Chemiosmosis • Use of proton motive force to generate ATP • Uses ATP synthase (ATPase) • Oxidative phosphorylation • Figure 5.21 Fermentation vs. Respiration Susbtrate level phosphorylation Oxidative phosporylation generates ATP No electron transport system Uses electron transport system (ETS) No proton motive force ETS creates proton motive force No ATPase Drives ATPase to synthesize ATP 2 ATP per glucose 38 ATP per glucose Figure 17.1: Photosynthesis Pigments Functions • Absorb light energy • Transfer light energy to photosynthetic reaction center Location • Embedded in or associated with the photosynthetic membranes- Eukaryotes- chloroplasts- Prokaryotes- chlorosomes, cytoplasmic membrane, thylakiod membranes...
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