Chemistry Final Study Guide

Chemistry Final Study Guide - Chemistry Final Study Guide...

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Chemistry Final Study Guide Gardner Yost Key ideas from Atoms and the Structure of Matter 1. Empirical : relative # of atoms 2. Molecular : absolute # of atoms 3. Millikan’s oil drop experiment: showed that atoms are naturally neutral, that a charged droplet had extra or missing electrons. 4. Molar Concentration : Moles Solute/Liters solution= M 5. Rutherford : positive nucleus, negative orbiting electrons. 6. Light : a. No medium required to travel through b. C= C= 3E8 λμ c. Specific gasses, when energy is added emit specific colors of light 7. 3 key quantum mechanical experiments : a. Atomic spectra b. Black body radiation: stipulations- solid that absorbs all colors, when heated emits lights whose color varies with temp. i. Planke’s Constant h=6.626e-34 js assume that light is a particle (photon) c. Photoelectric effect: When light strikes the surface of certain metals, electrons are ejected. i. Electron emission only occurs when the frequency of incident light is above a certain threshold v0. ii. # of electrons depends on the intensity of the incident light. iii. Speed of electrons is independent of brightness. 8. Bohr’s Atoms and Energy Level Diagrams: a. Electrons orbit nucleus, circular b. Electrons have a set of allowed orbits c. Electrons can move from one orbit to another, using discrete quantities of energy called quanta which are either absorbed or emitted. d. Works for hydrogenic ions 9. Quantum Mechanics:
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a. Electron is a blur between a wave and a particle b. Because atom is in the 3d: i. N= principal q# n=1,2,3,4 ii. L= angular momentum, shape, L= (n-1) iii. Ml= magnetic q# , orientation, Ml= -l, -l+ 1, -l+ 2 c. Total # nodes= n-1 d. # angular nodes= L e. # radial nodes= n-1-L f. Radial probability distribution: probability of finding electron at some distance from the nucleus.
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