Chapter 12
THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTY RELATIONS

651
I
n the preceding chapters we made extensive use of the
property tables. We tend to take the property tables for
granted, but thermodynamic laws and principles are of little
use to engineers without them. In this chapter, we focus our
attention on how the property tables are prepared and how
some unknown properties can be determined from limited
available data.
It will come as no surprise that some properties such as
temperature, pressure, volume, and mass can be measured
directly. Other properties such as density and specific volume
can be determined from these using some simple relations.
However, properties such as internal energy, enthalpy, and
entropy are not so easy to determine because they cannot be
measured directly or related to easily measurable properties
through some simple relations. Therefore, it is essential that
we develop some fundamental relations between commonly
encountered thermodynamic properties and express the
properties that cannot be measured directly in terms of easily
measurable properties.
By the nature of the material, this chapter makes extensive
use of partial derivatives. Therefore, we start by reviewing
them. Then we develop the Maxwell relations, which form
the basis for many thermodynamic relations. Next we discuss
the Clapeyron equation, which enables us to determine the
enthalpy of vaporization from
P
,
v
, and
T
measurements
alone, and we develop general relations for
c
v
,
c
p
,
du
,
dh
,
and
ds
that are valid for all pure substances under all condi
tions. Then we discuss the JouleThomson coefficient, which
is a measure of the temperature change with pressure during
a throttling process. Finally, we develop a method of evaluat
ing the
h
,
u
, and
s
of real gases through the use of gen
eralized enthalpy and entropy departure charts.
Objectives
The objectives of Chapter 12 are to:
•
Develop fundamental relations between commonly
encountered thermodynamic properties and express the
properties that cannot be measured directly in terms of
easily measurable properties.
•
Develop the Maxwell relations, which form the basis for
many thermodynamic relations.
•
Develop the Clapeyron equation and determine the
enthalpy of vaporization from
P
,
v
, and
T
measurements
alone.
•
Develop general relations for
c
v
,
c
p
,
du
,
dh
, and
ds
that are
valid for all pure substances.
•
Discuss the JouleThomson coefficient.
•
Develop a method of evaluating the
h
,
u
, and
s
of real
gases through the use of generalized enthalpy and entropy
departure charts.
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12–1
■
A LITTLE MATH—PARTIAL DERIVATIVES
AND ASSOCIATED RELATIONS
Many of the expressions developed in this chapter are based on the state pos
tulate, which expresses that the state of a simple, compressible substance is
completely specified by any two independent, intensive properties. All other
properties at that state can be expressed in terms of those two properties.
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 Spring '09
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 Thermodynamics, pm Page

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