Lecture note 2009 - ,EnergyDepartment,Stockholm,Sweden...

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Royal Institute of Technology, Energy Department, Stockholm, Sweden Three Lectures on turbines by Professor Torsten Strand, Ass. Professor, Energy Department (formerly Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery, Finspong, Sweden) [email protected] The three lectures are Operation and control of industrial gas turbine power plants [1] Introduction to gas turbine technology and gas turbine operation Security of electricity production [3] Introduction to methodology for designing power plants for high availability Turbo machinery in a sustainable world [4] Scenarios for the use of turbo machinery operating with zero emissions or on renewable energy ‘fuels’ Below you can find notes going with the power point presentations. Operation and control of industrial gas turbines History The first gas turbine that produced positive power was put in operation in Christiania (Oslo) in Norway 1903 by the inventor Ægidius Elling [2]. Gas turbine development went on slowly until World War II when jet engines were first developed. Industrial gas turbines were used as reserve and peak power until mid 1970 ties when gas turbines successfully were installed for baseline power production in Saudi Arabia. Since then gas turbine have become widely used in many different applications. There are turbines from 10kW up to 500MW. The industrial GT market is nowadays dominated by a few major companies; General Electric, Siemens, Alstom, Mitsubishi HI, Rolls Royce and Solar Turbines. In Sweden Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery in Finspong produces gas turbines in the power range 15 60MW. Volvo Aero manufactures parts to a variety of jet engines (Rolls Royce, GE, Pratt&Whitney). Most companies manufacture the turbines and equip them with the auxiliary package but there are several separate packagers for GE and Rolls Royce machines. GE turbine technology is licensed to number of manufacturers around the world.
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Industrial gas turbines are used in a lot of different applications: power plants on and off shore, heat and power cogeneration plants in industries and municipalities (district heating), drives for compressors in oil & gas industry (pipelines, gas compression, LNG plants), marine propulsion etc. The gas turbine or Brayton cycle The gas turbine is a build up as a very compact and complete energy converter. The core engine is composed of a compressor, a combustor and a turbine. The turbine drives the compressor and the driven equipment, most often a generator. In many medium size gas turbines, 10 40MW, the turbine is divided in two. The high pressure turbine is driving the compressor and the low pressure or power turbine is driving a generator or a compressor often via a gear box. The engine is always delivered as a complete plant with all the necessary systems for operation. The main ones are the lubrication oil system and fuel systems, but there are a lot more. To run the turbine, the driven equipment and all the auxiliary system a fairly advanced control system is included.
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