Lecture_9_ElectricalCharacterization2009rotated

Lecture_9_ElectricalCharacterization2009rotated - Lecture 9...

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Lecture 9 Electrical Characterization B. Gunnar Malm [email protected] www.ict.kth.se/courses/IH2655
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IH2655 Design and Characterisation of Nano- and Microdevices B. Gunnar Malm KTH Electrical Characterization What do we want to measure? Silicon MOS technology! Characterization types: IV, CV, ... Test structure layout Measurement setup: shielding, cables, SMU, impedance bridge
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IH2655 Design and Characterisation of Nano- and Microdevices B. Gunnar Malm KTH What do we want to measure? Monitoring of process stability Ultra-thin gate oxides, high-k dielectrics, sheet resisistance of doping and metal (silicides) Performance of devices (MOSFETs) and circuits Extract model parameters such as threshold voltage (V T ) or whole set of SPICE parameters
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IH2655 Design and Characterisation of Nano- and Microdevices B. Gunnar Malm KTH Test structures All measurements are typically on a 200-300 mm inch wafer. Map statistics at selected locations. MOS capacitances (or split-CV) for oxide studies Different types of 4-terminal resistance structures Van der Pauw for sheet resistance Cross Bridge Kelvin for contact resistance Different MOSFET transistor sizes, use that I drain W/L Arrays of structures for in-line probecard measurement (PCM)
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IH2655 Design and Characterisation of Nano- and Microdevices B. Gunnar Malm KTH Background – MOS gate oxide New high-k material introduced to reduce gate leakage Thicker layer – lower leakage Bulk & interface decfects, long term stability, stress effects et.c. must be characterized
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IH2655 Design and Characterisation of Nano- and Microdevices B. Gunnar Malm KTH MOS gate oxide process stability Gate oxide thickness and quality CV - thickness, trapped charge (also VT-shift) CP - interface states IV - oxide integrity, leakage current, breakdown field, charge-to-breakdown (QDB, TDDB) , hot-carrier injection (HCI), stress (NBTI)
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IH2655 Design and Characterisation of Nano- and Microdevices B. Gunnar Malm KTH MOS gate oxide process stability Standard textbook picture of charge related oxide issues
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IH2655 Design and Characterisation of Nano- and Microdevices B. Gunnar Malm KTH MOS gate oxide process stability C [pF]:2.86±0.43 Q-value:12.53±8.37 Vfb [V]:-0.16±0.12 delta Vfb [mV] :41.00±26.15 Gate oxide thickness and quality - 100 mm wafer map, metal-gate + high-k Influence of (trapped) charges Hysteresis due to ’interface’ states Capacitance 1/ oxide thickness Q-value measure of capacitance/resistance
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IH2655 Design and Characterisation of Nano- and Microdevices B. Gunnar Malm KTH MOS gate oxide process stability Basic IV measurements of leakage current in thin gate oxides
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IH2655 Design and Characterisation of Nano- and Microdevices B. Gunnar Malm KTH MOS gate oxide process stability Split CV on MOSFETs, source & drain reverse biased Use the actual device as a test-structure, measure the capacitance of the active carriers (electrons) in the channel inversion layer MOS capacitance probes the accumulated surface, using (holes)
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IH2655 Design and Characterisation of Nano- and Microdevices B. Gunnar Malm KTH MOS gate oxide process stability -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x 10 -12
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