Chapter21 - Hulmmficra-iadtnn hmdxaim 221 of mechanical...

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Unformatted text preview: Hulmmficra-iadtnn hmdxaim 221' of mechanical improvements. its tone became more singing and it became dtemative ap- . ‘ rpments in the capable of producing the subtlest nuances of tonal shadmgs. t. The tremendous growth of the orchestra to an ensemble containing . -. _. mmetimes over a hundred performers and to one that has essentially its | ; present composition (see chapter 10). is another illustration of the wide- 'sive purposes, ':- spread interest in tone color during this period. The woodwind and brass :quent changes 5" '. sections were expanded into complete families that now. benause of im- nnoduced was - -. provements in construction, could assume roles equal in importance to those use of slight - of the strings. Favorite instrumental colors were the clarinet. bass clarinet, demanded. French and English horns. and harp. Composers developed the art of .' ' orchestration to unprecedented heights, treating the orchestra like a vast . : palette from which to draw rich and infmitely varied combinations of tone “’3‘- Romantic ,' "_ colors. In the hands of such virtuoso orchestrators as Berlioz. Wagner. 831031 00111905' ‘- - Mahler. Strauss. Tchaikovsky. and Debussy. the orchestra became an instru— 91’ tom. more ment of immense subtlety and power. general. more .- a In addition. bands enjoyed a surge in popularity. partly because of the - - improvements in woodwind and brass instruments. Choral societies were organized throughout Europe and the United States. gtheRomantic _.. T .01; Romantic _ -.: he Romantic movement that swept through Europe in the nineteenth d as composers ' century changed music as it did the other arts. bringing a return, as in the 1d denser. more . '-- Baroque period. to a greater emphasis on subjective, emotional qualities. it assical music. 1 '- . . did not bring. however, a return to the Baroque style t'rseb’. in thefirsrpiace. the composer's goats had changed. Whereas the Baroque composer sought - to depict rather rigid. conventionni qfi'ecnons, the Romantic composer’s im the Classical intent was personal expression in all its ever-changing and irfinireiy varied etween sections ‘ manifestations Even more important, musicaiforms and the marina! Inn- rnore subjective _- guage had evolved nemendously since the Baroque period. Thus, the stylistic ven.cou1poser3_ ' pendulum did not return to exactly the some piece. because Romantic :1 movements to congresers. like all artists of at! eras, were challenged to respond in says that were appropriate to their own specific time and circwnctances. Although Romantic composers still worked within the major-minor tonal system and, for the numpart, continued to use forms inherited from the Classical period, they tronsfomted these in the cause q'personai emression, creating in l and other more 3-- 0101- 0? “m9", the process a distinctive new sort: in its own right. By the end ofthe nineteenth ‘0 0m?“ a wide -' cennoy, ernotionniism, inheritedforms. and even the major—minor system itseif tents introduced '. had all reached a breafing point, forcing still nnodter reevaluation ofgoals and 1181311 horn. the __ means. Bq’ore this point was reached. however, Romantic composers produced “b093, the "{m' ? some of the most poetic. touching, and emotionafbi rich music ever written— FSt 0f Pew: } mic that sfiii constinues the buiic ofthe concert repertoire. :ldition o v v - chromatic. The _ :ast—iron frame)- trough a number . mbridge. Eng; 'ress. 1960. my Press. 1937. rk and London: 1:. New York: on Press. 1988. . sted below. As complete opera :1 or videotape)- tdetbm'”; Aria. , “In des Lebcns :enza Euridice?” manta”: Air. “0 pica. hen min": sua pace”: Am, mo”: ~12.ka £611 dent! sellen. m"; Act 3. Finale rietta. “Voi. che and Aria. "DOVE '; Quintet, “Hm! ; Act 2, Finale to [3 33“), “Ah qua-“to Mass“): Miss-a in I (The Seasons) 'Dies'Btldms' ' ist' we r/V‘ The Romantic Period: An Introduction 17605 Precursors of Romanticism in English literature: Macphersan's c. 1760—6. 1 785 1778 1788 1789—1795 1790 1791 1794 1798 1808 1811 1812—1822 1813 1814—1815 181.5 1816 1818 pseudomedieval "Ossian" poems (1760—1763): Percy’s Reliance: afAn' ct'en! English Poetry (1765): and Walpole's medieval honor tale The Castle of Orr—unto (1765). which initiates a vogue for Gothic romances Storm und Drang movement in Germany. e.g.. Goethe‘s The Sorrows of Young Wanker (1774) and Friedrich Schiller’s The Robbers (1731) Copley. Watson and the Shark Bernandin de Saint-Pierre, Paul at Virginie French Revolution Fuseli, The Nightmare U. S. Bill of Rights is ratified Whitney patents the cotton gin Colen'dge and Wordsworth, Lyrical Ballads Goethe. Faust. Part I Schubert’s eariiest Lieder Publication of Grimm’s Fairy Tales Austen, Pride and Prejudice Goya. The Third of May, I808 Napoleon defeated at Waterloo: Congress of Vienna establishes post-Napo‘ leonic reorganization of Europe Rossini. The Barber afSevme Byron, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage completed; Mary Wollstonecraft Shel- ley. Frankenstein .211 214 mow-aluminum _—_.—————_—_—-—.-———-—_-——-—_—-_'——-_——_~g._ 1339 Strauss. Don Juan; Pan's International Exhibition: Eiffel Tower opens;- Rodin, The Thinker; Van Gogh. The Starry Night ' 1 890 James. The Principles of Psychology; lbsen. Hedda Goblet 1892 Tchaikovsky. The Nutcracker 1893 Verdi. F alstafi 1894 Debussy, Prelude to “The Afiernoon of o Faun" 1895 Roentgen discovers X-rays; Crane. The Red Badge of Courage 1896 Puccini. La boheme; Strauss, Also sprach Zarathustra: Marconi patents the ' wireless telegraph; first modern Olympic Games -' 189B Spanish-American War. the Cuties discover radium; Rodin, The Kiss 1899 Schoenberg. Verklarte Nachr. Debussy, Nocturnes 1900 Planck's fundamontal work on me'quantum theory: Ferdinand Graf von ': Zeppelin begins building large dirigibles; Freud. Interpretation of Dreams; Puccini. Tosca: Mahler, Symphony No. 4 '- T-he Romantic period in music (:2. 1320—1900) was part of a larger cultural ' -' movement that sweptEurope from the late eighteenth to the mid—nineteenth .- centuries. The era was characterized by such qualities as individualism; emotional subjectivity; nationalism; a sense of boundlessness: a yearning for the unattainable: an aflinity with nature; and a love of remote times and : places, the strange, the mysterious, and the supernatural.- Romnfictsm is often considered the opposite of Classicism, which stresses emotional re- ' straint, clarity of expression. and tradition. In a sense, Classicism and " Romanticism represent opposite poles of human nature. the rational and the emotional, which are both always present to some degree. At times the rational “classical" side gains precedence, as in the High Renaissance and ' the Classical period; at other times the emotional "romantic" sidepredom- ' inates. as in the Gothic era. the Baroque period, and the Romantic period. ; in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. the two currents ran '..'_' parallel as opposite reaction to the late Baroque aesthetic. At first Clas- » slcism predominated in the arts, but gradually Romanticisrn supplanted it as the leading force. The word “romantic” derives from romance, a medieval literary form written in a romance language, that dealt typically with events of classical history or legend, the adventures of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table, or the deeds of Charlemagne and his knights. and that showed a fascination with mystery. the supernatural, and miraculous acts of chiv— alry and loyalty. in the late eighteenth century, the middle class found in these medieval tales of romance qualities that spoke powen‘ulbr to their own 7 . developing "romantic" spirit. 'age rconi patents the .'. l. The Kiss linand Graf van "I nterpretation of ' 1 larger cultural .' mid—nineteenth t individualism; £8.93; a yearning emote times and Romanticism is es emotional re- Classicisrn and rational and the e. At times the_ lenaissance and c" side predom- ornantic period. so currents ran 7. Atfirst Clas- m supplanted it 'al literary form ents of classical Knights of the and that showed ms acts of chiv- e class found in ally to their own mmmrmmhmem 215 The Romantic spirit emerged first in literature. inspired by the medi- eval-oriented writings of James Macpherson, Thomas Percy, and Horace Walpole and by the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who stressed sensibiliot and the natural goodness of humanly. Romanticism proper began in Germany with the Sturm undDrang movement (c. 1760—1785) and the writings of von Schlegel, Tieclt, Novalis. Holderlin, and Wackenroder. Amang other early Romantic writers were Coleridge and Wordsworth in England and Bernardin de Saint-Pierre in France. During the first half of the nineteenth century. Romanticism became the leading literary movement, initiating an age of great achievements in poetry and novel writing. By the mid-nineteenth century. other movements arose to counter Romnticism. such as Parnassianism (Gautier and Heredia). Realism (Flaubert, Balzac. Dickens, Tolstoy. Turgenev. Dosroyevsky, and Ibsen ), Naturalism (Zola and Guy de Maupassant). and Symbolism (Verlairte. Mallarmé, and Rimbaud). In architecture, Romanticism manifested itself primarily in neo-Gothic, neo-Baroque, and alto—Renaissance revivalist styles. In pointing, early Romantics such as Copley, Fuseli. and William Blake were followed by Constable and Turner in England, Delacroix and Gericault in France, Goya in Spain. and Friedrich in Germany. As in literature. countermovements also developed, the most important being Realism (Courbet, Millet, and Daimler), Impressionism (Manet, Monet, Ptltsarro. Renoir. and Degas), Postimpressionism (Cezanne, Van Gogh. Gauguin), and Art Nouveau (Beardsley and Morris). These later movements paved the way for more radical developments in mentieth-century art. _ In music. Romantic tendencies were present throughout the Classical period, for example. in the pro—Classical expressive style and its extension as the Sturm und Drang movement. in some of Mozart’s more passionate works (e.g., the Symphony in G Minor, K. 550). and in the heroic style of Beethoven. Its emergence in the 1820s as the leading style may thus be seen as a natural outgrowth of trends already present. Romanticism remained the dantinantforce in music until the end of the nineteenth century. Romanticism in the arts flourished against the backdrop of a rapidly changing society. The industrial Revolution spread throughout Europe, leading to the growth of great cities. the depopulation of the countryside, and the creation of often appalling working and living conditions for the working class. in response to these conditions the new science of sociology arose, social and labor reforms were enacted. and various economic sys- tems emerged as alternatives to capitalism, the most important being social- ism, a proponent of which was Karl Marx {l81 8—1883). Although the-nineteenth century was not plagued by the almost constant warfare that had characterized earlier centuries. there were several con- flicts, sucli as the Crimean War, the Civil War in the United States, and the Franco—Prussian War. Also, the French Revolution had echoes in a number 216 amused: ________________.————-——-——————- individuaiism New Concepts of the Artist of smaller demoe'ratic revolts that swept through Europe (e.g.. those in 1830 and 1848). The period also witnessed the "Victorian era" in England (18374901). the “Bismarck era" in Germany (18714890). continued advances in science and technology. and the appearance of numerous inventions that made life easier and brought society to the threshold of the world we inhabit today. CHARACTERISTICS OF NINETEEN TH-CEN TUR Y ROMANTICISM We tum now to a more detailed examination of several of the important characteristics of rdneteenth—century Romanticism. A fundamental trait of Romanticism is its emphasis on individual free- dom and worth. Since individual freedom is often in direct conflict with the institutions of society. Romantic artists often found themselves in the roles of rebels against established conventions and critics of society and its institutions. The conflict between the individual and society becomes a major theme in the nineteenth-century novel. a conflict that found symbolic expression in music in the concerto, in the “struggle" between the soloist and the orchestra. observed in the Classical period but now carried to even greater heights. Romantic individualism also manifeSted itself in new concepts of the aztist and in the rise of nationalism. Now free from the patronage of the church and the aristocracy. artists became socially and economically more independent titan ever before. They developed a growing awareness of themselves as “artists"—tltat is. as indi- viduals different from ordinary people. with a special and somehow exalted mission in life. Various new concepts of the artist arose: (1) the artist as visionary or “seer." who transmits the flame of truth to mere mortals: (2) the artist as “bohemian," who starvcs in an attic. suffering and misunderstood but condoning to create works of art “for posterity" and who strives to shock the “bourgeois" with unusual dress and behavior; and (3) the artist as “Byronic hero." 3 tormented soul who feels more deeply and suffers more greatly than Ordinary people and who is often driven by violent (or even fatal) passions. In short. the Romantic artist held a romanticized conception of himself or herself. 601 of i to» Far- am: 3., those in 1830 ra" in England 390). continued to of numerous threshold of the .‘lSM l of the important 2 individual free- t conflict with the elves‘in the roles f society and its )ciety becomes a it found symbolic :en the soloist and ed to even greater l new concepts of _ mistocracy. artists ever before. The? '——tbat is. as indi- somehow exalted a: (1) the artist as re mortals: (2) the udmisunderstood . rostrivestoshock (3) the artist as _ and suffers more " lent (or even fatal) zed conception of ' 4 . ‘v‘i' . :..._. lw 35‘. -.< .-.. ._ "-3., 9’ 7. .3. --:.-.---:--.r -' _ . ‘ *' tr} Tt'iu' . 3. ._-' . ii \ MIMI-It'd: refinish M 217 Boundlessness Also‘fundamental In Romantic art is emotional subjectivity. that is. an attitude that imagination and personal expression are ends in themselves. at least as important as clarity of form. While in some respects this represents a departure from Classical ideals, in others it represents an intensification of tendencies already present but held in check. Related to emotional subjectivity is another quality common to Roman- ticism. the sense of boundlessuess, the desire to break the bounds of estab— lished forms and conventions and give the imagination free rein. Allied with this. too. was an attempt to encompass the totality of experience and even to suggest the infinite. The Romantic artist yearned for the unattainable. forever suffering from an indefmable longing that can never be satisfied. (”connectedness of the Arts love of - Far—A way Times and Places love of the Strange, Romantic boundlessness manifested itself also in a close connectedness of the various arts and an attempt to break down the boundaries between them. Romantic music, for example. shows an unprecedented affinity with poetry and painting. Thus. it is not surprising that two of the most charac— teristic new genres of the period are the art song. with its intimate marriage of music and text, and the symphonic poem. which paints a musical picture or depicts a story in music. The culmination of this trend in music is the “total art work" (Gesmntkunsnverk) cultivated by Richard Wagner in his mature operas. in which he attempted to merge music. words. scenery, and action in an all-encompassing unity. Still anotberaspect of Romantic boundlessness was slow: forexotic metrics and far-away times and places. Artists and anlovers of the period had a special foamess for the Middle Ages. which gave rise to a neo«Gothic revival in architecurre. the “Gothic” romance, and countless novels. plays. and poems set in the medieval past (e.g.. Scott's Ivanhoe. Tcrmyson's Idylls of the King. and Wagner's Ring cycle). Oriental and African themes were also popular. Romantic artists also probed the darker and the more fantastic realms of the imagination. Horror stones (e.g., F rankensrern). nightmarish paintings Mysterious, and (cg. Fuseii‘s The Nightmare). and mysteries abounded. as did fairy tales. Supemanrral An Affinity with Nature legends. and folk myths. Nature also exercised at strong influence on Romantic art. Romantic artists felt a deep affinity with “wild." untamed nature. which they saw as an overpowering. mysterious, primordial force. Nature represented. too. an ideal state unspoiled by civilization and an escape from industrialized urban life. References to nature abound in Romantic art: in fact. nature is ofien one of the artist’s most potent means for conveying atmosphere and mood. 218 hmmm .__________.____..._._———-——-—-————-—— Nationalism General Characteristics An awakening of interest on the part of ethnic groups and nations to their individual histories led to an increase in national pride and attempts to rediscover .ethnic roots and folk cultures. To establish particular national themes. Romantic artists based numerous wonts of art on national heroes, historic events. folk legends. myths. folk songs. dances. and the like. In music. this movement toward nationalism was particularly strong in the late nineteenth century (see chapter 24). ROMANTICISM IN MUSIC As noted in the introduction to this chapter. the Romantic style in music was a natural outgrowth of tendencies toward dramatic expression already present during the Classical period. Moreover. Romantic composers contin- ued to use Classical forms. although sometimes in a freer manner. and they continued to employ major-minor tonality in essentially the same manner as the Classicists. at least for the first half of the nineteenth century. To these established practices. however. they brought distinctive approaches that reflect the general characteristics of Romanticism described earlier. Several general traits of Romantic music may he noted: (1) Composers exploited all the musical elements for personal expression and developed more individualistic. personal styles than in earlier periods. (2) The favorite mediums were those that offered the greatest opportunities for personal expression either on an intimate scale (e.g.. the art song and the character piece for piano) or on a grand one (e.g.. symphonic music and opera). Abstract genres. such as the senate and chamber music. and more impersonal media. such as choral music. were not cultivated as extensively. (3) Com- posers felt an extremely close affinity with poetry and other types of literature and with the graphic arts. This manifested itself in countless ways in their music. (4) The Romantic sense of homelessness and yearning for the unattainable had a great effect on the development of the musical language of the nineteenth century. eSpecially in the areas of melody. harmony. tonality. and form. (5) Composers generally wrote either for a small group of friends or knowledgeable music lovers who could understand the subtle- ties of their art or for the broader. less sophisticated conceit-going public. ' Composers adapted their music to their audience. (6) As in the Classical ." period. amateur music making in the home confirmed to be popular. Nearly every middle class family owned a piano: thus. easily playable music for solo ' ' piano. songs. duos for piano and simmer instrument. and arrangements of operas _ ations to their 3 attempts to :ular national tional heroes. 1 the like. In cog in the late : style in music :ession already lposets contin- ntner. and the)" .ame manner as ttury. To these ppmaches that earlier....
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