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neuromotor 1 - Terminology Anatomical position...

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Terminology : Anatomical position, contralateral, ipsilateral, bilateral, proximal, distal … Neuraxis - T shaped, vertical thru brainstem/SC, horizontal from frontal to occipital lobe Rostral (toward the beak, anterior along horizontal neuraxis) Caudal (posterior along horizontal neuraxis, inferior along vertical neuraxis) Ventral (anterior along vertical neuraxis) Dorsal (posterior along vertical neuraxis, superior along horizontal neuraxis) Gray matter (horns in SC), white matter (columns in SC) Clusters of cell bodies: nucleus, lamina, body, cortex, center, formation, horn (outside CNS = ganglia) Fiber bundles: tracts, fasciculus, brachium, peduncle, lemniscus, commissure, ansa, capsule (outside CNS = nerve) internal capsule - fibers from subcortical nuclei to cortex and back to cerebrum, BS, SC anterior, posterior, genu
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Brain vesicles: Rhombencephalon (hindbrain) - medulla, pons, cerebellum (“little brain”) Mesencephalon - midbrain Diencephalon - dorsal thalamus, ventral thalamus (subthalamus), epithalamus, hypothalamus Telencephalon - cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia Bulbar - medulla, pons Supra/infratentorial - location of brain part relative to tentorium cerebrum, diencephalon - supra; BS, cerebellum - infra Neurons - sensory, motor, association (interneurons; Purkinje, Renshaw, pyramidal) Neuroglia (glial, satellite) oligodendrocytes - astrocytes - ependymal - microglia - Schwann -
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Brain Development: Primary vesicles Secondary vesicles Adult brain part Proencephalon Diencephalon Thalamus & Hypothalamus Telencephalon Cerebrum Mesencephalon Mesencephalon Midbrain RhombencephalonMyelencephalon Medulla Oblongata Metencephalon Pons & Cerebellum
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CSF - formed in choroid plexes of 4 ventricles: 2 lateral - one in each hemisphere 3rd - interventricular foramen connect with 3rd w/ both lateral vent. 4th - cerebral aqueduct connects 3rd and 4th vent. Three openings (apertures) from 4th into subarachnoid space: 2 lateral, 1 median Returns to blood via arachnoid villa Internal hydrocephallus External hydrocephallus Blood-CSF barrier
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Blood supply receives 20% of cardiac output and uses 20% of oxygen uses 400 kcal of the a 2000 kcal diet 800ml/m, approx 7s from internal carotid (IC) a. to internal jugular v. 10s interruption = unconsciousness 2 main routes - vertebral aa. and IC aa. R/l vertebral aa form basilar a bifurcates into post cerebral aa Supply brainstem, cerebellum, caudal diencephalon Other vertebral & basilar branches: paramedian aa supply medial brainstem short circumferential aa supply anterolateral stem long circumferential aa supply posterolateral stem & cerebellum IC aa anterior cerebral aa supply orbital regions, medial frontal , and medial parietal lobes middle cerebral aa supply lateral portions of frontal,parietal, temporal lobes Circle of Willis (Cerebral Circle) anterior communicating a anterior cerebral aa IC aa posterior communicating aa posterior cerebral aa Blood brain barrier (BBB)- specialized capillary endothelial cells
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Venous Return
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