Abnormal notes - 1 What is a Psychological Disorder-Time...

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What is a Psychological Disorder? -Time Period-how long does it need to go on in order to qualify? -DSM diagnostic and statistical manual “bible” for psychological disorders (ex: heterosexual orientation used to be considered a disorder) ● Psychological disorder : psychological dysfunction within an individual associated with distress or impairment in functioning and response which is not typical or culturally accepted (behavioral, cognate, emotional) Three Criteria: 1. Psychological Dysfunction A. Breakdown in cognitive functioning Ex: psychotic B. Breakdown in emotional functioning Ex: depression C. Breakdown in behavioral functioning Ex: dresses inappropriately or stops showering 2. Distress/Impairment this criterion is satisfied if the individual is extremely upset 3. Culturally Unexpected Response Ex: if a person were to see a mouse jumping up would be normal but jumping out the window would be unexpected and excessive the greater the deviation the more abnormal it is (masturbate in public -> but Madonna did simulate it on stage; eccentricity sells) important to take culture into consideration Psychological disorder: Field of clinical psychology: Abnormal professionals: - received training: scientist practitioner model (update yourself with actual research; no operating in a vacuum) - Psychiatrist: can prescribe medicine Medical school; specializing in psychiatry; focuses on medication - Psychologist: study psychology in graduate training; therapy -PhD: more focus research; -PsyD: clinical work - Psychiatric Social workers - Psychiatric Nursing 1. Clinical description: - chronic/ episodic; 1 1
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- demographic (age: mental retardation); - gender distribution (PMS); - prevalence (point in time); - incidence( number of new cases of a disorder identified in a defined period of time: eating disorder) 2. Etiology: - cause of a disorder: - integrative model: 3. Treatment: -psychological treatments -meds History of Psychopathology Hippocrates: physical causes Supernatural Tradition (15 th century): exorcism, evil spirits, devils, daemons Movements of moon and stars -> lunatic Biological: (19 th century) – outbreak of syphilis (in end stage: psychotic symptoms); at the same time outbreak of malaria (high fever) -> high fever of malaria cured the syphilis Hence they learned that biology can serve as a cure. Psychological around the time of Freud Basic schools of thought: Psychoanalytic -unconscious -influences from childhood will dictate how someone will act as an adult Humanistic -Maslow and hierarchy of needs, self actualization as number one -Rogers and person centered therapy -unconditional positive regard Behavioral -classical and experimental conditioning -Skinner -Pavlov Cognitive -attempt to identify what the faulty thoughts are and figure out a way to replace them with healthy thoughts Integrative Model - one dimensional model: traces the origins of behavior to a single cause 2 2
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Multidimensional integative model: multiple interacting causal factors I. Biological Model 1. genetic influences: - Dominant and recessive genes:
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