OCS NOTES - Continued notes Temperature and salinity at the...

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Continued notes…. Temperature and salinity at the sea surface are determined by the net heat input and net freshwater input at the sea surface. Net heating of the ocean --- warmer sea surface temp Net cooling of the ocean --- cooler sea surface temp Net evaporation ------- salty surface water Net precipitation ------- fresher surface water Earth’s rotational axis is tilted by 23.5orelative to the plane of its orbit around the sun The sun crosses the equator twice a year, and it moves between 23.5o S and 23.5 o N. The seasons are caused by variations in the amount of incoming solar energy as Earth makes its annual rotation around the sun on an axis tilted by 23.5°. During the Northern Hemisphere winter, the Southern Hemisphere is tilted toward the sun and the Northern Hemisphere receives less light and heat. During the Northern Hemisphere summer, the situation is reversed. Sea surface temperature in Northern Hemisphere summer : Warmer in the tropics (rarely above 30 degrees C). Warmest in the western tropics except in the eastern Indian Ocean.* Cooler in the polar region (near freezing temperature).* Changes seasonally following the movement of the sun. *Surface salinity is determined by freshwater input at the sea surface. ITCZ – intertropical convergence zone – appears as a band of clouds near the equator. The position of the ITCZ shifts seasonally. It reaches its most northerly position in July and most southerly in January.
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