WEatherandclimate study guide - Hydraulic cycle the cycle...

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Hydraulic cycle : the cycle of moving and transforming water molecules from liquid to vapor and back to vapor. For example. Water evaporates from the ocean, rains over land, and collects in puddles streams and lakes. Some of the water evaporated while the rest runs off into rivers and eventually back to the ocean, thus restarting the cycle. Saturated air : for every molecule that evaporates, one condenses, thus, not net loss of water, or water vapor. If the water is warm, more of the water evaporates, if cold, less evaporates. Saturation is more likely to occur in cold weather because less evaporation occurs. Condensation Nuclei: the microscopic bits of dust, smoke, and salt which come from ocean spray. Basically they serve as surfaces where water vapor can condense. When warm air strikes the nuclei, the water vapor bounces off the nuclei. When its cold however, the water vapor moves more slowly therefore sticking to the nuclei more easily, forming droplets and eventually clouds. Specific Humidity: It is the amount of water vapor in given air parcel relative to the mass of the air in parcel. Water vapor mass/ total mass of all the air in the parcel . Absolute Humidity: It is the mass of water vapor in given parcel relative to the volume of all the air in the parcel. Mass of water vapor in a parcel/ volume of all the air in the parcel Relative Humidity: It is the amount of water vapor in a given parcel relative to the maximum amount of water vapor the parcel can hold at a particular temperature. Water vapor content/ water vapor capacity Actual Vapor Pressure: the pressure exerted by the water vapor molecules in a given volume of air. For example. In normal parcel of air exerting 1000 mb of pressure, you
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would have 780 mb of nitrogen, 210 mb of oxygen, and 10 mb of water vapor.
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