Midterm_Study_Guide - PHIL 2025-001 Midterm Exam Study...

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PHIL 2025-001 Midterm Exam Study Guide Be prepared to answer questions similar to the following: 1. What is the difference between a consequentialist moral theory and a deontological moral theory? Consequentialist moral theory denotes that the consequences of an action are the basis of moral judgment. Whereas deontological moral theory denotes that the motivation of an actions is the basis of moral judgment. 2. What is good according to a divine command theorist? According to the divine command theory, good is what god commands. 3. What makes something good according to a cultural relativist? According to a cultural relativist, good is what the culture believes is good. 4. What does a Utilitarian mean by “net happiness”? Net Happiness = happiness - unhappiness 5. What makes an act right or wrong according to utilitarianism? An act is right according to utilitarianism if net happiness is positive and wrong if net happiness is negative. 1
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6. What is the only thing good without qualification according to Kant? According to Kant, the only thing good without qualification is a good will. 7. What is Kant’s name for the one moral law? State the two formulations of it that we learned. Be able to apply those formulations to the example of the lying promise. Kant’s name for the one moral law is categorical imperative. Formula of Universal Law “Act only accordingly to the maxim that you can at the same time will to be a universal law.” Formula of Humanity “Act only in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or that of another, always at the same time as an end, never merely as a means.” 8. What is a maxim? A Maxim is a subjective principal of his/her own will. 9. What is Aristotle’s doctrine of the mean? Apply this doctrine to the virtue of courage.
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