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Midterm_Study_Guide[Tam] - PHIL 2025-001 Midterm Exam Study...

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PHIL 2025-001 Midterm Exam Study Guide Be prepared to answer questions similar to the following: 1. What is the difference between a consequentialist moral theory and a deontological moral theory? A consequentialist or teleological ethical theory is one that thinks the consequences of an action are the basis for evaluating the action. It is the consequences of an action and their furtherance of some good that matter morally. Conversely, a deontological ethical theory says that the motive of and action or the act itself is what matters morally. A deontological theory may be such that it finds moral weight to reside in the motive upon which an agent acts. 2. What is good according to a divine command theorist? Under a divine command morality, good is what God commands, and evil is what God forbids. An act is judged to be good if it is in accord with one or more of God’s commandments and bad if it defies one or more of them. 3. What makes something good according to a cultural relativist? If a culture approves of something, it is good. It a culture disapproves of something, it is bad. The actually practices of approval and disapproval on a cultural level are the criteria for moral judgment. 4. What does a Utilitarian mean by “net happiness”? Net happiness, simply put, is happiness minus unhappiness or the pain subtracted from pleasure. 5. What makes an act right or wrong according to utilitarianism? Only those actions that maximize happiness and minimize pain will counted as good. If net happiness is positive then it is good, if net happiness is negative then it is bad. 1
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6. What is the only thing good without qualification according to Kant? The only thing good without qualification is a good will. A good will acts out of respect for the moral law (does the right thing solely because it is the right thing to do) 7. What is Kant’s name for the one moral law? State the two formulations of it that we learned. Be able to apply those formulations to the example of the lying promise. The moral law for Kant is the Categorical Imperative . The Categorical Imperative is a law that commands without exception. The first formulation of the Categorical Imperative that Kant offers is traditionally called the Formula of Universal Law (FUL): Act only in accordance with that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it become a universal law. (G 4:421) Another of the formulations of the Categorical Imperative that Kant gives us is known as the Formula of Humanity (FH): So act that you use humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, always at the same time as an end, never merely as a means. (G 4:429) 8. What is a maxim? A maxim is a subjective principle of volition. It is the rule an individual acts upon when he or she does something.
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