test 3 - Life span development o Developmental psychology...

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Life span development o Developmental psychology- age-related changes in the behavior/ mental processes from conception to death. o Nature vs Nurture Biological vs social environment Nature approach- AKA maturational approach – development proceeds in an orderly fashion, is result of genetics Nurture approach – AKA experience approach – emphasize importance of environment for development Believe that   children are blank slates   Middle ground – relative contribution of each. o Continuity and Discontinuity Continuity – development is gradual, additive process without sudden change Discontinuity – development is discontinuous, qualitative transformation Different stages of development Stability and Change – AKA early / later experience Early experience- experiences of infancy especially important for later development Later experience – early experiences are important development, but no more important than later experience. Interactionist view – aspects of both sides affect development Cross-sectional research – studying people all at one time Longitudinal research –studying same group of people for a period of time Problems o Cross-sectional studies – cohort effects – differences that result from specific histories of age group studied. No necessarily due to development. o Longitudinal studies are expensive, in time, and money. Attrition – loss of research participants over time Culture may play a important role in development  North America / western Europe > competitive and question  authority as an adult   (individualistic and independent)  Asian African latin America more cooperative and respectiful  toward elders. (collectivist / interdependent)  Culture is an important determinate in determining behavior Mexican children are taught to respect their elders, be good  listeners and talk only when spoken to, where as in American  cultures they teach children to question authority and to think for  themselves. 
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o Prenatal Development o Germinal period – 1 st 2 weeks after conception. Creation of zygote, cell division, and attachment of zygote to uterine wall. o Embryonic period – 2-8 weeks after conception. Rate of cell division increases, support systems for cell form, and organs appear o Mass of cells attached to uterine wall forms layers is now called “embryo” Types of layers Endoderm – digestive and respiratory systems Ectoderm – nervous system and sensory receptors Mesoderm – bones muscles, excretory, reproductive, and circulatory systems o Fetal period – 2-9 months after conception. Fetus is rapidly gaining weight; fine detailing of body organs and systems o Teratogens – an agent that produces malformation or raises population incidence of malformation.
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