History 1A Final Study Guide - History 1A Final Study Guide...

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History 1A Final Study Guide Part 1. Identifications Romlus and Remus - Aeneas - Paterfamilias - Twelve Tables - Lex Hortensia (Hortensian Law) - Hannibal - He was the general Cannae - Zama - Tiberius Gracchus - Gaius Gracchus - Marius - Sulla - Pompey - Cicero - Julius Caesar - First Triumvirate - This was formed by Caesar, Augustus - He changed his name to Octavian from Octavius and was the adopted son of Caesar. He was one of three men to form the second triumvirate but he ousted the two others and became sole ruler of Rome with the title of Augustus which means revered. This marked the beginning of the Roman Empire or the start of Rome being ruled by an emperor. Senate functioned but he was official first citizen of Rome called princeps. His provincial administration included dividing the empire into senatorial and imperial provinces with imperial provinces being under direct control of the government because they were trouble spots and required a military presence. The senate controlled senatorial provinces with Augustus having supervening power. The treasury was controlled by the senate but Augustus sometimes had to donate from his own funds to keep the treasury solid. He started a new trend of the imperial court consisting of the emperor and his legal advisors who asserted their own jurisdiction and became a court of appeals for legal cases throughout the empire. In 27, he made a show of returning all power to the state but political power is actually concentrated in him for the rest of his life. He assumes a number of traditional republican offices and non-traditional ones just like his predecessor Julius Caesar. He is consul every year from 27-23, got the power of tribune for life after resigning as consul, got supervening power over any official in Rome in 27, given power to convene the senate, served as censor three times, and became pontifax maximus in 12. This meant that he had supreme religious authority as well as supreme secular authority over the Roman state and this combination made him the first citizen in Rome or the princeps. The capstone of his career came in 2 BC when the senate voted him the “father of his country”. He formalized the role of the equestrians, set financial qualifications for membership to each order, removed some senators, used the senate as a court of law, and assigned the equestrians to be financial administrators. His military reforms included the creation of the Praetorian Guard which is a bodyguard for the emperor, a fixed term of
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service for troops, rewarded veterans with money and citizenship, and formed a permanent navy. He also aimed to restore religion and morality which included a revival of ancient priestly colleges and he served as high priest of the Roman state from 12 BC to his death. His program of social legislation aimed to strengthen the Roman family and increase the population after a decline due to civil war and encouraged procreation and marriage while punishing single men, childless couples, and adulterers. The Roman
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