Phil Midterm Study Guide - PHIL 102 Midterm Study Guide...

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PHIL 102 - Midterm Study GuideBring a F-288 or F-289 scantronBring a PencilKeywords:A priori - prior knowledge before an experience A Posteriori - what reason alone can’t know in advanceEmpiricism - justifying what we believe through sensuous experience (how we justify beliefs)Analogy - form of reasoning that calls attention to one similarity between 2 different things and because of that one similarity concludes that the 2 things are similar in others Omnivident - an all-seeing creature, and can see all dimensionsMetaphysics - science that concerns what is real or what is beyond natureRationalism - (almost opposite of empiricism) your reason alone is what you need to use to judgetrue from false (use reason to know about reality)Plato - Looking for “True Knowledge” he believes appearance and reality aren't the same thing, the soul is the mover of the body... Plato answers “what am I”Influences on Plato: Parmenides-world of senses is completely unreliable (underlying reality) Heraclitus- what you see is what you get (everything is changing)Protagoras-everything is relative (everyone is right)Empedocles-earth air fire water (real) + 1 element (building blocks) Democritus-ATOMS… (Everything is atoms)True Knowledge - not sense perception. Knowledge of what is eternal, unchanging, and always true for everyone at all times, even if they don’t know itUniversal - name of a set of all objects or concepts with the same name, ex. dogParticular - an instance of some universal, ex. Snoopy
Form or Ideal - universal, positive things, ex. Ideal beauty. You already know beauty b/c it’s a universal. You’ve never really seen beauty with senses but you already know it Psuche = Psyche = Soul = self-mover, therefore immortal, never changesFoundationalism - epistemological position that all our beliefs must be justified in something certain; if the foundation is good, so are the rest of the beliefsCoherentism

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