Lecture24-2009W - by VEGF (vascular endothelial growth...

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Neural control of coordinated behaviors (regulator) Muscles (effectors) hormonal 1. Elementary behaviors - an isolated response - a single effector organ (e.g.) Aplysia gill withdrawal Crayfish escape behavior 2. Complex behaviors - patterns/sequences of responses - several effectors - (e.g.) locust flight An example of action patterns: locust flight Peripheral-control hypothesis Central-control hypothesis - tethered locust - recording motor & sensory activities b Peripheral or Central-control?
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in use A. Exercise: muscle in use (1) Endurance training FG b FO fibers Capillary density ↑ (angiogenesis)
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Unformatted text preview: by VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) Density of mitochondria (2) Resistance training hypertrophy: actin & myosin synthesis (myofibrils ) FG b FO fibers B. Atrophy: muscle not in use by denervation, tenotomy (cutting the tendon), immorbilization, microgravity, etc. few SO (type I) fibers muscle atrophy with age (= sarcopenia) exception: hibernating black bears & aestivating Australian frogs b no disuse atrophy How? Aerobic mitochondria b ROS b cell damage SOD -ROS: reactive oxygen species (e.g. H 2 O 2 ) SOD: superoxide dismutase...
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Lecture24-2009W - by VEGF (vascular endothelial growth...

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