Lecture%2010%20slides

Lecture%2010%20slides - Electron micrograph of a liver...

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Electron micrograph of a liver cell. The many small dark spots are glycogen granules that have been stained. The large structures are mitochondria. From Lehninger, 5 th ed., 2008
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The above compares the pathways of glycolysis (in red) with gluconeogenesis (in blue). Pyruvate carboxylase requires the coenzyme biotin. From Lehninger, 5 th ed., 2008
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This enzyme has the coenzyme biotin covalently attached to a lysine. The biotin swings between two different catalytic sites on the same enzyme. From Lehninger, 5 th ed., 2008
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Part of the bypass for the first step in gluconeogenesis takes place inside the mitochondrion. This effectively moves NADH from inside the mitochondrion to the cytosol. From Lehninger, 5 th ed., 2008
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Pentose Phosphate pathway The above gives an overview of the pentose phosphate pathway. Glucose-6-P goes through two oxidative steps and a decarboxylation to produce two equivalents of NADPH. The NADPH is used in the steps at the top right. Ribulose-5-phosphate is converted through a series of enzyme catalyzed steps (diagramed in the following slides) back to glucose-6-P, to create more NADPH.
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Lecture%2010%20slides - Electron micrograph of a liver...

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