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8A-review08-handout

8A-review08-handout - Chem 8A Review Handout fall 2008...

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Chem 8A Review Handout – fall 2008 Concepts (see more details below) 1) Electronegativity - relates to many other concepts, including polar covalent bonds, inductive effects, nucleophilicity, carbocation-stabilization, anion stabilization, reactivity for substitution reactions 2) Organic Bonding - orbitals, polar vs non-polar covalent, sigma and pi bonds, cis/trans isomerism 3) Intermolecular forces between molecules and boiling point 4) Electron delocalization, Resonance structures, and curved arrows – where are the electrons? 5) Organic acids – how structure influences acidity 6) Nucleophiles and electrophiles – where are the electrons? 7) Reaction coordinate diagrams and reaction mechanisms, intermediates, transition states, catalysts 8) Carbocation stability – an empty p orbital, not a full octet on carbon; what stabilizes a carbocation? 9) Alkene addition reactions, Substitution reactions with alkyl halides 10) Isomers and chirality: cis/trans isomers, enantiomers, properties of chiral molecules, enzymes 11) Relevance of organic molecules in biology, technology, and daily life Skills and types of questions (see previous handouts for other specific examples) : Finding the electrons in organic molecules (in bonds and lone-pairs) and recognizing whether they are localized or delocalized. Knowing how this effects stability of a conjugate base and nucleophilicity. Recognizing and drawing structures of molecules: recognizing line-angle drawings, identifying functional groups (amine, alcohols, ethers, alkenes, alkynes, benzene), drawing enantiomers Using curved arrows to represent delocalized electrons or electron movement between molecules for a reaction mechanism: related to acidity, delocalization, reaction mechanism, etc. Be able to draw a
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