2-233_Chapter2_water

2-233_Chapter2_water - Chemistry 233 Fundamentals of...

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Unformatted text preview: Chemistry 233 Fundamentals of Biochemistry Water and Buffers Water-Aqueous Medium Properties of water polarity solvent properties both important in its biological function H-bonding critical effect on water structure types of H-bonds Acids, Bases, pH and titration curves Buffers Electronegativity of the oxygen atom creates a dipole in the water molecule Figure 2-1 Structure of the water molecule. The Water Molecule + + - The Hydrogen Bond Compare the properties of water, NH 3 and CH 4 How to explain the high melting and boiling points of water? A hydrogen bond is a long bond between the partially positive H of one water molecule and a non- bonding electron pair on the partially negative O in another water molecule O-H is the donor O is the acceptor bond length ~ 1.8 each H 2 O can make a total of 4 H-bonds H-bonds are strongest when they are colinear (180 ) Figure 2-2 Hydrogen bond between two water molecules. Compare electronegativity of elements Only the highly electronegative elements can H-bond: O, N and sometimes S 3D Structure of Ice Figure 2-3 Structure of ice. Note the tetrahedral arrangement of water molecules in the ice crystal H-bonding is important in ice and liquid water H-bonding network in liquid water y Figure 2-4 Theoretically predicted and spectroscopically confirmed structures of the water trimer, tetramer, and pentamer. this highly organized yet rapidly changing H- bonding network resembles the structure of ice Solvent properties of water water has a high dielectric constant water can separate charges easily dipole of water can interact with anions and cations Hydrophilic compounds are also soluble in water and water can H-bond with other types of functional groups such as alcohols, acids, amides, etc Figure 2-6 Hydrogen bonding by functional groups. This is important in the structure of all biological components Many biological molecules are amphipathic: both polar and nonpolar characteristics water interacts with the polar group (hydrophilic) the non-polar part is excluded by the water Figure 2-7 Examples of fatty acid anions. This leads to formation of structures such as micelles and bilayers Figure 2-8 Associations of amphipathic molecules in aqueous solutions. Protons in Solution...
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2-233_Chapter2_water - Chemistry 233 Fundamentals of...

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