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Page 1 of 8 Study Guide – FA 1010 – Chapters 10-16; A World of Art – 5 th Edition Chapter 10: Drawing Drawing is fundamental to all art – thinking, visualization, problem solving, creativity Medium ( pl. media ) Purposes of Drawing: - Study and exploration - Illustration - Expression (drawings as finished works of art) Drawing as Art Drawings used as study and exploration on board or slate prior to Renaissance, when paper was more readily available “Drawings, more than paintings, are thought to reveal the uniqueness of the artist’s personal vision.” Drawing Materials Dry Media – metal point, chalk, charcoal, graphite, pastel, conté Pigments, Binders Metal Point 269, Raphael, Paul Rending His Garments, 1515 Chalk – natural sedimentary materials (calcium carbonate) Charcoal – carbon (burnt wood) , sticks (vines), compressed sticks or blocks (denser and darker), charcoal pencils Charcoal is best for depiction of value, form, modeling, 3D illusion Fixatives – because charcoal smudges, not used as a permanent drawing until the 19 th century 271, Georgia O’Keefe, Banana Flower , 1933 272, Kathe Kollwitz, Self Portrait, 1933 Conté crayon – charcoal with binder Clay added to graphite during the Napoleonic Wars, not the same as modern conté Modern conté is like charcoal but with binder that makes it more permanent and easier to control 273, Georges Seurat, Café Concert, 1888 Graphite – lead pencil (misnomer) Versitle material, good for detailed image, will NOT produce BLACK. 274 Vija Clements, Untitled , 1970 Erasures as medium Rauschenberg erased de Kooning and called it drawing 275, Larry Rivers, Wm. de Kooning , 1961 Suggests process as essential to image 276, de Kooning, Untitled , 1952 Pastel – colored chalk + colored pigment with binder Early pastels were tints because of chalk; modern pastels are brilliant and synthetic Very fluid and intuitive medium, like charcoal but in color New workable fixatives allow layering of surfaces and give permanency to media Hatching creates optical mixing of color Pastels were perfect for Impressionism because it needs to be applied in linear textures, just like the paintings of the Impressionists 277, Edward Degas, After the Bath, 1890 278, Mary Cassatt, Young Mother, Daughter, and Son, 1913 Oil Pastel – Pigments in oil binder Oil pastel is a textural or linear medium, capable or brilliant color because of optical mixing 282, Beverly Buckanan, Monroe County House, 1994
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Page 2 of 8 Liquid Media Pen and Ink – Early Renaissance inks were made of iron oxides and oak gall, turns brown with age, quill pen allows line variation Variety of line is one of the most important elements in ink drawing – may also use sticks or other experimental media to avoid consistent drafting or “coloring book” line Values created by hatching or stippling (dots), or by washes “One of ink’s important characteristics is that it is capable of such diverse effects, surfaces, and textures” Wash - diluting ink with water to create gray. Dry Brush
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