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Lecture Week 12 - Globalization To understand globalization...

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Globalization To understand globalization we first should turn to what is sometimes called “the European miracle” or “the Great Transformation”, to the development which started in but few West European countries in the second half of the 18 th century and then gradually spread across the world. I mean the modernization process . The scholars still can not explain why did it take place at all, but its outcomes have changed the whole world. In essence, modernization is the economic growth based on scientific and technological innovations with corresponding social and cultural changes. The consequences of modernization are numerous, but the following are the most important ones: 1) Industrialization . The first time in human history, in modernized societies the lion share of the GNP is produced not in agriculture but in industries and services. 2) Urbanization. In modernized societies the majority of population lives not in villages, but in towns and cities. 3) Demographic revolutio n. As a rule, in modernized societies individual families have not as many children as they can procreate, but as they want and plan to procreate. 4) Revolution in education. The first time in history, the universal literacy has become a characteristic of modernized societies. Moreover, in this regard, the requirements are constantly increasing. 5) Occupational mobility. In modernized societies people usually do not inherit professions and occupations of their parents and even less of their grandparents. Moreover, a growing number of people have to change their occupations during the span of their life.
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There are also noticeable social and political consequences of modernization. The modern order in developed countries, especially in the Western ones, is based on for main underpinnings: liberal democracy, civil society, nation-state, and welfare capitalism. The main characteristics of contemporary Western societies did not emerge simultaneously. Regional and other differences notwithstanding, usually economic freedom and civic rights were achieved first, then political rights were won, and nation-states created. Only afterward, mainly in the
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