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Exam 3 Notecard - Bond Angles Linear 180 Trigonal Planar...

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Bond Angles: Linear – 180º Trigonal Planar – 120º Tetrahedral – 109.5º Ammonia – 107.5º (1 lone pair) Water – 104.5º (2 lone pairs) Trigonal-Bipyramidal – 120º & 90º Octahedral – 90º Multiple Covalent Bonds: C, N, O, S = x3 or x2 to self and others C = N, O, S N = O, S S = O\ Formal Charge: FC = Group # - (LPE - .5 BE) Bond Order: # of e pairs / # of bonds (Bonding – Antibonding) / 2 If above 0, then molecule exists Molecular Polarity Covalent if EN = 0 Polar if EN = 0 – 1.5 Ionic if EN = 1.5 + Molecular Orbital Theory Robert Mullihan Valence e are delocalized Valence Bond Theory Linus Pauling Valence e are localized between atoms (or LP) .5 filled atomic orbitals overlap to form bonds sp = linear sp 2 = trigonal-planar sp 3 = tetrahedral sp 3 d = trigonal – bipyramidal sp 3 d 2 = octahedral Conversions & Values: 1 bar = 1 x 10 5 Pa = 1 x 10 2 kPa = .9872 atm 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr 1 Pa = 1 newton/meter 2 .082057 L*atm / mol * K 82.057 m L*atm / mol * K 8.314 J / mol * K 1.987 cal / mol * K STP = 1 atm, 273 K, 22.4 L, 1 mol P water = 23.8 torr at 25º C Boyle’s Law: P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 As P up = V down Charles Law: V 1 / T
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