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# March 12 - Sampling causation and study design Population...

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March 12, 2008 Sampling, causation and study design Population and sample o Population – the entire set of elements (individuals or other entities) o Sample – a subset of elements form the population Sampling overview o Two general types of sampling Probability Non-probability o Goal is to generalize – two types of Generalizability Sample Generalizability – ability to generalize from a subset (sample) of a larger population to that population itself Cross-population Generalizability – ability to generalize from finding about one group, population, or setting to other groups, populations, or setting Basic sampling concepts o Target population: ENTIRE group you want to generalize your research to o Population: members of target population from which sample is actually selected o Sampling frame: list of members of study population from which sample is selected. List of sampling units o Sampling unit: any single unit sampled from the population Example: book chapter 4 o Target: all delinquents in Kindle County o Population: youths adjudicated delinquent in Kindle County o Sampling frame: records of probation office of youths adjudicate in Kindle county in 2002 o Unit: each individual in Kindle county in 2002 Probability sampling o Sampling methods that rely on random sampling o Allows researchers to select study subjects to be statistically representative of population they want to learn about (generalize to) Representative = sample characteristics are similar to population characteristics o Major types Simple random sampling Systematic random sampling

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March 12 - Sampling causation and study design Population...

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