Psych Exam 2 Notes - Exam 2 Material Learning What is...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Exam 2 Material Learning What is Learning? A relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience o Relatively permanent, hard to un-learn o Can be both voluntary or un-voluntary o 3 types of learning/conditioning classical conditioning operant conditioning observational conditioning o Classical Conditioning     : a form of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a  response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. Ivan Pavlov- Pavlovian conditioning=classical conditioning, food and salivation of dogs The Unconditioned Association : Unconditioned stimulus-(unlearned- food) Neutral Stimulus- (sound of machine) Unconditioned response- (unlearned-salivation) Over time… The Conditioned Stimulus : Conditioned stimulus- (click of machine)
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Conditioned response- (salivation) Phobias and fear responses Pleasant emotions and physiological responses Classical Conditioning  (cont’d) Instrumental Acquisition Types of conditioning: Simultaneous conditioning     - neutral & unconditioned at the same time Delayed conditioning     - neutral stimulus starts first, both end at the same  time o Seems to work best Trace conditioning     - neutral presented, then unconditioned presented  (no overlap) Backward conditioning     - unconditioned first, then neutral Extinction It is possible that we can stop pairing things together Stimulus Generalization One conditioned stimulus spreads to another stimuli (ex: little Albert) Simulus Discrimination Associate B with A, but not things similar to A o Operant Conditioning:  B.F. Skinner (Skinnerian Conditioning) Form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences
Image of page 2
Comparison with classical conditioning The Skinner Box:      a box designed to test reinforcement Animals are able to emit behaviors In operant conditioning, you can get animals to do things they wouldn’t  normally do-  emitting behavior The questions: What do we want the animal to learn? How does it learn? Once it learns, what does it do? Punishment & Reinforcement     o Reinforcement:  anything that follows a response which increases an organism’s tendency to make  that response o Punishment:  anything that decreases the likelihood of behaving in a particular way- decreases an  organism’s tendency to repeat behavior o Positive     :  the  introduction  of something o Negative     :  the  removal   of something IN OPERANT CONDITIONOING, POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE DO NOT REFER TO  GOOD AND BAD Types of Punishment Primary Reinforcement/Punishments
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern