Psych Exam 2 Notes - Exam 2 Material Learning What is...

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Exam 2 Material Learning What is Learning? A relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience o Relatively permanent, hard to un-learn o Can be both voluntary or un-voluntary o 3 types of learning/conditioning classical conditioning operant conditioning observational conditioning o Classical Conditioning     : a form of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a  response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. Ivan Pavlov- Pavlovian conditioning=classical conditioning, food and salivation of dogs The Unconditioned Association : Unconditioned stimulus-(unlearned- food) Neutral Stimulus- (sound of machine) Unconditioned response- (unlearned-salivation) Over time… The Conditioned Stimulus : Conditioned stimulus- (click of machine)
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Conditioned response- (salivation) Phobias and fear responses Pleasant emotions and physiological responses Classical Conditioning  (cont’d) Instrumental Acquisition Types of conditioning: Simultaneous conditioning     Delayed conditioning     - neutral stimulus starts first, both end at the same  time o Seems to work best Trace conditioning     - neutral presented, then unconditioned presented  (no overlap) Backward conditioning     - unconditioned first, then neutral Extinction It is possible that we can stop pairing things together Stimulus Generalization One conditioned stimulus spreads to another stimuli (ex: little Albert) Simulus Discrimination Associate B with A, but not things similar to A o Operant Conditioning:  B.F. Skinner (Skinnerian Conditioning) Form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences
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Comparison with classical conditioning The Skinner Box:      a box designed to test reinforcement Animals are able to emit behaviors In operant conditioning, you can get animals to do things they wouldn’t  normally do-  emitting behavior The questions: What do we want the animal to learn? How does it learn? Once it learns, what does it do?     o Reinforcement:  anything that follows a response which increases an organism’s tendency to make  that response o Punishment:  anything that decreases the likelihood of behaving in a particular way- decreases an  organism’s tendency to repeat behavior o Positive     :  the  introduction  of something o Negative     :  the  removal   of something IN OPERANT CONDITIONOING, POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE DO NOT REFER TO  GOOD AND BAD Types of Punishment
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Psych Exam 2 Notes - Exam 2 Material Learning What is...

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