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NUTRITION FINAL STUDY GUIDE EXAM 1 Chapter 1: Overview of Nutrition - Micronutrients vs. Micronutrients- both are essential o Micronutrients: vitamins- small amounts, not energy yielding o Macronutrients: protein, carbs, fat (energy-yielding, need micronutrients to facilitate energy release) Carbs: 45-65% Protein: 10-35% Fat: 20-35% - Phytochemicals o Compounds in plant foods- active in the body, but not nutrients - Kcal calculations, Energy Density, Nutrient Density o Nutrient Density- more nutrients + less kcal = more nutrient dense o Energy Density - # of kcal’s per gram of food (lower=better) o Carbs (g x 4= kcal) o Proteins (g x 4= kcal) o Fats (g x 9= kcal) - DRI: Dietary Ref. Intakes o Recommendations for intake of kcal, nutrients, physical activity o Composed of EAR, RDA, AI, UL - EAR: Estimated Average Requirement o Avg. amount of nutrients sufficient for ½ the population o Nutrients assessed different ways (depends on deficiency symptoms) - RDA: Recommended Dietary Allowances o Levels set to meet needs of 98% of population o Goal is to prevent deficiency - UL: Tolerable Upper Intake Levels o Max intake that is safe, anything more increases risk of toxicity - EER: Estimated Energy Requirement o Average kcal intake needed to keep a healthy body weight according to intake and physical activity (kcal/kg)- any excess = weight gain - Primary vs. Secondary Nutrient Deficiency o Primary: Caused by inadequate dietary intake of a nutrient o Secondary: Caused by disease/drugs that interfere with nutrient absorption, use, excretion, or destruction (how the body uses nutrients) Chapter 2: Diet Planning and Vegetarian Diets - USDA food guide: 5 food groups
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o Fruits, vegetables, grains, meats & legumes, milk - Discretionary Calories: leftover kcal between what is needed to meet nutrient needs and what is used by the body - MyPyrimid vs. Exchange List System o MyPyramid groups foods based on vitamin and mineral content (Cheese in milk group) o Exchange List groups foods based on where energy nutrients come from (Cheese in meat group/ Olives, Bacon, Nuts in Fat group) - At least ½ of all grains should be whole grains - Nutrient Enrichment vs. Fortification o Enrichment: nutrients lost during processing are added back into food o Fortification: nutrients not usually present in a food are added to balance its nutrient profile - Labeling: Ingredients listed in descending order by weight o o % Daily Value: Must be listed for Fat, Cholesterol, Sodium, and Carbs Based on 2000 kcal diet - Vegetarian Diets: o Benefits- hard to prove b/c of other influences (smoking, alcohol, o Typically weigh less (high fiber/low fat intake?), lower BP and cholesterol (only in animal products), reduced risk of cancer (antiox.) o Pay extra attention to/ or supplement protein, Omega-3’s, iron, B12, Calcium and Vit D
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