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Midterm Study Guide - 1 What is the Ring of Gyges What does...

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1. What is the Ring of Gyges? What does it tell us about ethics? Answer: The Ring of Gyges was a magical ring that made people invisible with a simple turn of the ring, and the folktale tells as that inherently we are all trying to take actions in our self-interest and that we are morally corrupt, and the only thing stopping us is society, and law. 2. What is ‘psychological egoism’ and ‘ethical egoism’? Answer: Psychological egoism refers to the idea that everyone does act in a self- interested, was while ethical egoism claims that everyone should act in their own self- interest, and all actions should be in self-interest. 3. What is the difference between descriptive and normative theories? Answer: Descriptive morality refers to the idea about the action that people do, while normative theories refers to the idea of what people should do. 4. Give two arguments to think psychological egoism is true. Are these good arguments? Answer: Many actions are in the self-interest of a person, no matter how altruistic they seem to appear on the surface. “Unselfish actions” always produce a sense of satisfaction and this is the real motive behind the action. 5. Give an argument to think that psychological egoism is false Answer: Many self-interested actions are not selfish precisely because they take proper account the interests of others, while many stupid actions are neither self-interested nor altruistic. 6. What are some problems with ethical egoism? Answer: The claim of ethical egoism call be universalized- nobody would want to live in a world where everyone was an ethical egoist- and their view is inconsistent.
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7. How does Professor Silver distinguish ‘ethics’ from ‘morality’? Answer: Ethics is what should do; while Morality is how something should relate to other give their fundamental equality. 8. Can ethical egoism be refuted? What are Professor Silver’s views on this? Answer: Ethical egoism cannot be refuted because an ethical egoist would never be convinced that his view is wrong, that rationality is about what we care about, and the ethical egoist simply does not care about other people. While Professor Silver believes, there are inconsistencies in ethical egoism. 9. Can a religious person be immoral, or a non-religious person be moral? What are the connections between religious and moral motives? Answer: A religious person can be immoral, if their religion asked them to commit immoral acts accordance to the social culture, while a non-religious person can be immoral and commit humble acts according to the greater social culture. Religion and morality are interacting with each other, where a society without a sense of morality could have religion- including a relationship with non-moral gods, would be moral in that particular culture, but a counter-culture would find this religion morally wrong and dangerous. (African Colonization) 10. What are the connections between religious and moral knowledge? Consider the story of Abraham and the attempted sacrifice of Issac
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