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1Circuit ElementsCircuit elementis a mathematical model of a real device•Active element: is capable of generating energyExamples: generators, batteries•Passive element: absorbs (dissipates) energyExamples: resistors, capacitors, inductorsActive ElementThe most important active elements are voltage and current sources•Independent sources–independent voltage source– independent current source•Dependent sources–dependent voltage source– dependent current sourceActive Element•Independent voltage sourceprovides a specified voltage(independent of the current through the element)v+V-
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