lecture_notes_10_24_07 - The Chromosome Theory of Heredity...

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The Chromosome Theory of Heredity, outline – Lecture 7 2007 The Chromosome Theory of Heredity [Reading: SS 85-100; CR 274-277] Chromosome number basics Every organism has a standard chromosome number A specific collection or set of chromosomes accounts for that number Evidence associating balanced chromosome sets with viable cell function Boveri, 1902: Experiments with sea urchins (2n = 36) Normal fertilization and embryo development: Eggs are fertilized with one sperm = Monospermic Fertilized monospermic eggs have mitoses with two poles, and develop normal diploid embryos Shaking eggs results in 3,4, or more poles Dispermic eggs were obtained with high sperm concentration, 54 chromosomes Dispermic zygotes with 3 poles 8% normal zygotes Dispermic zygotes with 4 poles <1% normal zygotes Conclusions: Complete chromosome sets normal development Unbalanced chromosome sets abnormal development Different chromosomes carry different qualities Evidence associating whole chromosomes with traits Sex chromosomes in insects
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