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lecture_notes_10_17_07 - Gregor Mendel outline Lecture 4...

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Gregor Mendel, outline- Lecture 4 2007 Gregor Mendel and the Birth of Genetics [Reading: SS 42-51; CR 251-260] Biology in the mid 1800’s The Cell Theory was a few decades old, but well-known Chromosomes known, not understood DNA discovered in 1869 Lamarck’s Theory of Acquired Characteristics generally accepted Blending view of heredity Darwin hotly debated Mendel’s Background Born 1822; Well-read, science-minded; modest and poor performer in major exams Mendel pursued studies in plant hybridity as a scholarly pursuit While growing and experimentally breeding plants noticed and tabulated variation From 1856 to 1863 Mendel carefully planned and carried out a series of experiments with peas ( Pisum sativum ) to understand the patterns of variation The goal of Mendel’s celebrated research : In preliminary observations Mendel noted uniform cultivars (cultivated varieties) of peas and their hybrid progeny, but in subsequent generations he observed discrete variation . So he set out “to determine the number of different forms under which the offspring of hybrids appear – to arrange these forms with certainty according to their separate generations – definitely to ascertain their statistical relations.” Mendel’s Key Experiments Preliminary observations and starting materials Mendel evaluated 34 cultivars (cultivated varieties) of garden peas for 2 generations and scored their phenotype (observable characteristics) for 15 traits (forms of a character) True-breeding or pure-breeding
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