TWS 21 Definition of Important Terms

TWS 21 Definition of Important Terms - 1 TWS 21 African...

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TWS 21 African Literature Winter 2007 Definition of Important Terms colonialism A system of control, exploitation, and occupation of one territory or country by another. While often used interchangeably with imperialism , colonialism differs in emphasis: since the ancient Roman colonia , or “estate,” colonial rule has usually been associated with settlement of a dominated territory, whereas imperialism simply connotes rule per se . The colonial period or “Age of Empire” refers to the European conquest and domination of much of the rest of the world between the early sixteenth and the mid- twentieth century. Colonial practices varied widely, from plunder (the Iberian conquest of the Americas), to elaborate extractive bureaucracies (British India and Africa), to the displacement and/or destruction of the original inhabitants and imitation of the mother country (North America and Australia/New Zealand), to attempted integration with the mother country (French Algeria and most of the territories annexed by Russia). Much of the colonial system was dismantled by the mid-1960s, but the colonial period has two noteworthy legacies. First, most former colonies remain poorer than the advanced capitalist West and are often under the economic and political domination of the former imperial powers, a situation often described as “neocolonialism.” Second, colonialism had enormous effects on both the dominant and dominated cultures and polities, resulting in large-scale cultural diffusion and syncretism , and important patterns of migration toward the colonial powers. See also diffusion and diffusionism ; imperialism and empire ; and postcolonialism . "colonialism" Dictionary of the Social Sciences . Craig Calhoun, ed. Oxford University Press 2002. Oxford Reference Online . Oxford University Press. UC - San Diego. 12 February 2007 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html? subview=Main&entry=t104.e298> industrialization The process underlying the transition from primarily agricultural and craft production to machine-driven mass production organized on the factory model. Industrialization contributes to and correlates with a wide range of other economic, social, cultural, and political transformations, and forms an inextricable part of most theories of modernization and modernity . These broader accounts typically reference the experience of western Europe and the United States, which began to industrialize in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries—at varying rates—and where industrialization accompanied the development of the modern nation-state , capitalism , democracy , markets and long-distance trade, urbanization, mass literacy and communication, and a host of other social features. The complex result of this process is often described as industrial society .
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