Intro Archaeology Notes 01-13

Intro Archaeology Notes 01-13 - Intro Archaeology Notes...

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Unformatted text preview: Intro Archaeology Notes 01/13/09 History of Archaeology • Before Archaeology • Early archaeology: 18 th – 19 th centuries • Culture History: Early 20 th century o Potter styles, chronology, & Early interest in antiquity • Nabonidus – Babylon, 6 th century B.C. • Ancient Greeks • Roman Empire • Aztec Empire 16 th Century Speculation on Native Americans • Bartolome de Las Casas – famous writer in 16 th century on Native Americans (N.A.s). Most famously known today for being a defender of N.A. rights under Spain. He also speculated on where they came from. He viewed them as having a long ancestry in the Americas. • Jose Acosta – proposed that N.A. originally came from Asia and crossed some fictitious bridge, boundary, etc. Antiquarianism European curiosity for ancient civilizations • Objects & monuments for European museums, royal houses, etc. o Not seen as a science because there are no questions being asked – just pillaging. o England and France (during Napoleon’s time) were both famous for antiquarianism. o Luxor – ancient thieves. The enlightenment • Empiricism & experimentation • Thomas Jefferson: o 1 st American archaeologist – questioned the idea of monarchy. Dangerous to do at the time; does god really support one king? o He began to excavate a site methodically in order to answer a question he had. Moundbuilder controversy. Had to do with the question of whether N.A.s were from the Americas, and whether they built these mounds. Also, a legal question: if they did not, or could not, have built those mounds, then they did not have any claim or rights to the land upon which these mounds were built. Jefferson began excavating burial mounds, and compared living N.A. anatomy to bones that they found. In conclusion, he found that they had in fact built these mounds and claims to the land. 19 th Century • Geology: o Charles Lyell – stratigraphy & human antiquity o James Hutton – uniformitarianism. Proposed that human beings were far older than anyone had originally thought. • 19 th century evolutionary theory. Invented by Europeans. Viewed human evolution as having a progression. Everyone passed through certain stages (cultural, not necessarily biological) on their way to becoming to modern Europeans. o Savagery Barbarism Civilization o As you go through each stage, you have an increase in morality until you eventually reach the ultimate stage of morality. o The only way to move a civilization from savagery to civilization was to Christianize them. Take away their lands, send them to boarding schools, and force them to speak a different....
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Intro Archaeology Notes 01-13 - Intro Archaeology Notes...

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