Lecture 10 Chapter 8

Lecture 10 Chapter 8 - Introduction to Genetic Analysis...

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    Introduction to Genetic  Analysis Ninth Edition Anthony J. F. Griffiths, Susan R. Wessler, Richard C. Lewontin, and  Sean B. Carroll CHAPTER 8 RNA: Transcription and Processing Copyright 2008 © W H Freeman and Company
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RNA vs. DNA d. RNA can catalyze reactions (ribozymes). DNA cannot catalyze reactions.
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    RNA vs. DNA: sugar is different RNA  vs  DNA
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    *** RNA vs. DNA: DNA has thymine; RNA has uracil
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    RNA = ribonucleic acids 1. Messenger RNA (mRNA) 1. Carries information needed to make protein. 1. Transcribed from DNA 1. Functional RNAs 1. Transfer RNA (tRNA)  1. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)  1. Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs)  1. Regulatory RNAs 1. Silencing RNAs (siRNA) 1. MicroRNAs (miRNA)
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    Functional RNAs Active RNAs.  Not translated into protein. Provides accessory  functions to the processing of information from DNA to protein. Transfer RNA (tRNA)   Transports correct amino acids to the mRNA in the process of translation. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)   The major components of the translation machinery  Guide the assembly of amino acids brought by the tRNAs based on the  sequence of the mRNA. Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs)   Mediate splicing of the primary RNA transcript into a mature RNA by splicing  out the introns.
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    Gene silencing Post transcriptional  gene silencing. Chromatin silencing. Antiviral immunity. Transposable element  silencing.
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The Central Dogma Germline (Gametes) Somatic Cells Meiosis Mitosis Express traits Transmit traits
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    RNA transcription  Requirements 1. Template to copy from. 1. DNA replication also needs template. 1. Only one strand is used as template (template or non-coding  strand) 1. DNA replication uses both strands as templates. 1. Does not need to be primed 1. DNA replication can happen only on primed templates. 1. Carried out by RNA polymerases  1. DNA replication is carried out by DNA polymerases. 1. Starts at specific sequences in the genome = promoters  1. DNA polymerase start requirements are much less specific-11-base  recognition sequence and AT-rich repeats.
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  RNA transcription  Requirements 1. Requires unwinding of helix and helicases. 1. Same as DNA 1. Only a local effect. Bubble formed extended 500 bases-5 kb. 1. DNA forms a replication fork that moves along entire length of chromosome. 1. Transcription always occurs in the 5’ to 3’ direction. 1. Same as DNA replication. 1.
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Lecture 10 Chapter 8 - Introduction to Genetic Analysis...

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