Lecture 11 Chapter 9 - Anthony Griffiths Susan Wessler...

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1 Introduction to Genetic Analysis Eighth Edition Chapter 9: Proteins and Their Synthesis Copyright  ©  2005 by W. H. Freeman & Company Anthony Griffiths • Susan Wessler • Richard Lewontin William Gelbart • David Suzuki • Jeffrey Miller
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2 The Central Dogma Meiosis Express traits Mitosis Transmit traits Somatic Cells Germline Cells
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3 Translation Conversion of nucleotide sequence of mRNA  into amino acid sequence of polypeptide or protein The process of decoding the genetic code.
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4 Eukaryotic Gene Structure
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5 Keep the Polarities Straight! Amino-terminal end (N-terminal end) Carboxy-terminal end (C-terminal end)
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6 Translation of mRNA to protein: is mediated by two of the functional RNAs tRNAs (transfer RNAs) Adaptors with anticodon-connected to a specific amino acid  Delivers amino acid to growing protein chain  Through binding of anticodon to codon on mRNA Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) Major components of the ribosomes. Ribosomes Large macromolecular structures facilitates the assembly of amino acids into a linear protein based on the nucleotide sequence of the codon in the mRNA  The three nucleotide anticodon in tRNA.
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7 Aminoacyl tRNA Synthetases :  Attaches an  amino acid to a tRNA 1. Has two binding sites. 1. Amino acid binding site 2. tRNA binding site. 1. Bring specific tRNA and specific  amino acid in close proximity. 1. Catalyzes the binding of amino  acid to the 3’-OH end of tRNA 1. There are 20 different aminoacyl  tRNA synthetase for the 20  different amino acids. Synthetase tRNA
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8 An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase  attaches an amino acid to its tRNA
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9 The codon anticodon pairing: converts nucleic acid code into an amino acid code
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10 The Ribosome:  Brings together all the key players in protein synthesis 1. Small Subunit (30S) 1. mRNA binding site. 1. Aminoacyl tRNA binding site. 1. Decoding center 1. ensures that only tRNAs carrying matching anticodon (cognate  tRNA) is accepted. 1. Large Subunit (50S) 1. Peptidyl transferase center  1. amino acid is transferred from the tRNA to the growing protein chain  via a peptide bond.
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11 Ribosomes : Molecular Workbenches
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12 The ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are the  key elements of the ribosome tRNA-mRNA contact at the decoding center is  primarily mediated by rRNA. The peptide bond formation in the peptidyl  transferase center is  catalyzed by an active  site in the rRNA. Ribosomal proteins play a secondary role.
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