Exam 3 Review Material - Exam 3 review Slides Gunaratne...

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  1 Exam 3 review Slides Gunaratne Lectures Gunaratne Sections – 16 QUESTIONS. Large-Scale Chromosomal Changes Lecture 1 and 2 Chapter 16 Gene Isolation and Manipulation- Lecture 1 and 2. Chapter 20 ***Note-Chapter 19 – Evolutionary Genetics-WILL NOT BE  ON THE EXAM
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  2 PowerPoint Slides for Introduction to Genetic Analysis Ninth Edition Anthony J. F. Griffiths, Susan R. Wessler, Richard  C. Lewontin, and Sean B. Carroll CHAPTER 16 Large-Scale Chromosomal Changes Copyright 2008 © W H Freeman and Company
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  3 Large-Scale Chromosomal Changes
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  4 Large-Scale Chromosomal Changes Results from cell division errors. Cell cycle Error S-phase Replication small-scale mutations Prophase Chromosome pairing Duplication/deletion Recombination translocation/inversion Anaphase Segregation Aneuploidy Telophase /cytokinesis Cell division Euploidy/Polyploidy
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  5 Large-Scale Chromosomal Changes 1. Changes in chromosome number Euploidy/Polyploidy Changes in the number of chromosome sets (genomes). Aneuploidy Changes in the number of one or a few chromosomes in the set. 1. Structural changes in chromosomes Deletions Duplications Translocations Inversions
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  6 Oogenesis
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  7 The Essence of Mitosis: Daughter cell have 100% chance of inheriting any allele Parent (2n)  double to (4n)  divides to give daughter cells (2n) 4n 2n 2n Parent cell  (after doubling genes) Daughter Cell Daughter Cell
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  8 Each gamete contains only one copy of a chromosome Homologous chromosomes pair during meiosis I 1st division 2nd division gametes The Essence of Meiosis: Daughter cell have 50% chance of inheriting any allele 2n 2n 2n 2n n n n n
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  9 Euploids
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  10 Polyploids Two types Autoploids Multiple chromosome sets from the same species Alloploids Multiple chromosome sets from two or more different  species.
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  11 Creating Allopolyploids
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  12 Creating Allopolyploids Brassica  (2n 1 ) x  Raphanous  (2n 2 yielded gametes (n = 9 and n 2 = 9). Hybrid n 1 +n 2  = 18 was sterile.  since the genomes were different enough not to facilitate  pairing during meiosis.  Low frequency spontaneous chromosome doublings yielded fertile offspring which were 2n 1  + 2n 2  = 36 These were called amphidiploids (doubled diploids) They are fertile since they have pairing partners during  meiosis. 
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  13 Creating Allopolyploids
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  14 The Importance of Gene Balance Aberrant euploidy results in changes in the number of entire  sets of chromosomes.  Does not change the proportion of things.
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