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Kate Helvestine ANTHROPOLOGY 2 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE Ethnography – literally means “nation or group writing.” It is used for resolving mysteries, fixing problems, getting results, and seeing clearly “how”. It is a description of culture usually based upon participant-observation, which helps establish trust. Basically a study of culture and cultural practice without bias. qualitative & quantitative research – qualitative research is research involving detailed, verbal descriptions of characteristics, cases, and settings. Qualitative research typically uses observation, interviewing, and document review to collect data. Quantitative research is research that examines phenomenon through the numerical representation of observations and statistical analysis. cultural relativism – all values are anchored in culture, and each values in cultures are different. Ethnocentrism - centered on a specific ethnic group, usually one's own. Modern anthropological perspectives try to avoid this to avoid bias and using an agenda. Functionalism – theory or hypothesis about social order: Every existing social progress in a culture exists because it serves some sort of function. That function is not always apparent even to the members of the culture. It is very individualistic. structural-functionalism – emphasis on social cohesiveness. Cultural forms help society hang together, even to intimidate behavior explainable in terms of social structure. Fieldwork - living among a group of people for the purpose of learning about their culture Kula – a set of trade relations among Trobriand men involving the giving away of shell artifacts with the objective of displaying prestige and reinforcing alliances. The bracelets showed how you establish relationships with others – part of a chain of relationships. Each bracelet has its own history and links the island together – a symbol of power and prestige. Potlatch - a ceremony of giving away or destroying one's possessions to gain social status. an important Coastal Indian ceremony in which the host gave away gifts to those guests who were in attendance. It was an important social function in which the greater the value of the gifts given away, the greater the assumed wealth of the host. A ceremony held by Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest.
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