PROMETHEUS - CRONUS and RHEA CRONUS ZEUS HERA -family,...

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Unformatted text preview: CRONUS and RHEA CRONUS ZEUS HERA -family, fertility, marriage POSEIDON - sea DEMETER -earth, fertility HESTIA -hearth, family HADES -Underworld IAPETUS (one of the 12 TITANS) Married CLYMENE PROMETHEUS EPIMETHEUS ATLAS MENOETIUS DEUCALION (m. PYRRHA PROMETHEUS PROMETHEUS Iapetus, a Titan, married CLYMENE, an Oceanid. Zeus struck Menoetius (Prometheus’ brother) because of Zeus his pride. his Atlas holds the sky with his head and hands at the edge Atlas of earth. He had led the Titans against Zeus. of Prometheus held bound with hard and inescapable Prometheus bonds, an eagle would eat his immortal liver during the day, he would be restored at night. day, Heracles rescued him, killed the eagle, released Heracles Prometheus from his suffering. Prometheus WHY was Prometheus punished? Why was Prometheus punished? Testing gods/ Theme of sacrifice/food Testing Story Story in Hesiod’s Theogony and Aeschylus’ Theogony (Tragic poet of classical Athens, 5th c. BC) (Tragic tragedy entitled PROMETHEUS BOUND. PROMETHEUS According to the Theogony: Gods and mortals According quarreled at Mecone, Prometheus divided a great ox and set the pieces out at an altar to deceive Zeus. “For the one group he placed flesh and the rich and fatty innards on the hide and wrapped them all up in the ox’s paunch, for the other group he arranged the bones of the ox, wrapping them up in white fat” wrapping Zeus Zeus responded “Son of Iapetus, how partisan has been your division of the portions. has Prometheus responded: “Choose whatever you Prometheus want” want” Zeus took the piece of the white bones of the ox Zeus arranged with crafty art. arranged ETIOLOGICAL EXPLANATION already In the ETIOLOGICAL THEOGONY: this myth the origin of sacrifice. THEOGONY this “For this reason, the races of humans burn the bones for the immortals on the sacrificial altars.” bones ZEUS ZEUS angry at Prometheus’ deceit, did not give FIRE to mortals. not Prometheus, tricked him by stealing in a Prometheus, hollow fennel stalk the gleam of fire, and gave it to mortals. gave For that he was punished. Interpretations of Prometheus’ story Interpretations Prometheus’ fire symbol of defiant progress. Prometheus the archetype of culture god ultimately Prometheus responsible for sciences and progress. responsible Linguistics: Prometheus> Think (relates to root >metis, Linguistics: cunning intelligence) in advance (PRO) Prometheus=FORESIGHT. Prometheus=FORESIGHT. His Brother’s name Epimetheus (Think, After, ‘epi’) In other sources, Prometheus is said to have created the In first men, fashioning them from potter’s clay, but this tradition does not appear in Hesiod’s Theogony. Idea of Theogony Idea craft and primacy. craft Aeschylus’ PROMETHEUS BOUND BOUND Tragedy begins with personifies STRENGTH and Tragedy FORCE, servants of autocratic Zeus, who brought Prometheus to northern land of Scythia. Hephaestus accompanies them. It was Hephaestus’ “flower of fire” that Prometheus had stolen, and for that error he must be punished. be Hephaestus in contrast to fierce Strength and Force Hephaestus hates his job, curses his craft, appears sensitive. hates Prometheus expresses his bitterness, because although Prometheus he and his mother fought on the side of Zeus against the Titans, he is punished now. Titans, Play ends with fulfillment of punishment, while the earth Play shakes, cosmic effect. shakes, Story of IO in Aeschylus’ Prometheus Bound Significant Scene Io was a mistress of Zeus. Priestess of Hera from royal family of city of Argos. Priestess Zeus could not deceive Hera. Io was transformed (by Zeus, to avoid his wife’s Io jealousy) into a white COW, and Argus (with the many eyes), was her guard. Hermes was sent to Argus by Zeus, who made him fall asleep by telling him stories> Hermes Argeiphontes= ‘slayer of Argus.’ Hermes Zeus visited her in the form of a bull. Hera Hera sent a gadfly that maddened Io, who wandered miserably over the world until she came to Egypt. came She crossed Bosphorus (name means crossing She of the cow) of There by the river Nile, Zeus restored her human There form and she gave birth to a son called EPAPHUS (=‘Him of the Touch’) EPAPHUS Connection with Egypt, Io possibly worshipped Connection as ISIS. Religion/Ritual Prometheus foresees Io’s destiny Conception of a son not through rape but Conception through gentle touch of a god. through Io seen as a victim, just like Prometheus. Theme of transformation. Prometheus meets Io, conversation of the two. Theme of oracular power, Prometheus foretells Theme Io her future. Io Theme of Storytelling as a ‘drug’ that puts to Theme sleep, Hermes’ storytelling to Argus sleep, Political Political reading of the myth of Prometheus. Prometheus. Prometheus a symbol against autocracy, Prometheus against violent regime, against force. against Defender of eternally worthy humanityDefender optimism. Emphasis on Humanity optimism. Prometheus> stubborn pride (negative Prometheus> aspect towards this character in myth). aspect Prometheus and the Romantics Prometheus In 18th c. established political order of Europe, after French Revolution, Prometheus> heroic rebel. P.B. Shelley (1792-1822) wrote a political and radical verse drama titled Prometheus Unbound. Prometheus At the same time his wife, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley wrote Frankenstein, or The Modern Frankenstein or Prometheus. Frankenstein creates from bits Prometheus Frankenstein taken from dissecting rooms and cemeteries a humanlike creature, a tabula rasa, clean palette, tabula clean ready to accept anything (making of man>relates to Prometheus story). man>relates Lord Lord Byron (1788-1824) died of fever while in Greece, during the revolt against the Ottoman empire, making of Modern Greek State. Wrote a short poem titled PROMETHEUS PROMETHEUS They godlike crime was to be kind To render with thy precepts less The sum of human wretchedness… In the endurance and repulse Of thine impenetrable spirit Which Earth and Heaven could not convulse, A might Lesson we inherit. Musei Vaticani, Vatican City - Laconian Black Figured VASE Date: ca 530 BC- Archaic Date: Prometheus bound by the hands and tortured by an eagle Prometheus and ATLAS Prometheus From Louvre Museum- Heracles freeing the bound Prometheus. Side A of a Boeotian (?) black-figured cup Late Archaic. black-figured Io (as cow) and Argus, black-figure amphora, Io amphora 540–530 BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen Staatliche Berlin Berlin Hydria c. 460 B.C. (Red-figured> classical) Hermes approaches from the right as Argus starts to flee with Io (who had been turned into a cow by Zeus). into Detail of a Greek red-figured (Classical) stamnos: the cow Io, Hermes, and Argus. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna, 1868 Prometheus Prometheus by Gustave Moreau Gustave PROMETHEUS Artist: Artist: Heinrich Friedrich Füger, c. 1817 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/15/2009 for the course CLASSIC 22030 taught by Professor Karanika during the Fall '07 term at UC Irvine.

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