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Unformatted text preview: CRONUS AND RHEA CRONUS ZEUS HERA POSEIDON DEMETER HESTIA HADES BATTLES OF ZEUS BATTLES BATTLES OF ZEUS Against the TITANS TITANOMACHY Against Against the TYPHOEUS GIANTS (son of Gaia and (conceived by TARTARUS) Uranus’ severed genit On GAIA) ALLIES OF ZEUS ALLIES OF ZEUS The Hecatoncheires (Hundred Handed creatures, hurling stones) Cyclopes forged for him thunder and lightning. His Brothers and Sisters The Titanomachy: Zeus Defeats His Father, Cronus Zeus grows to maturity Cronus disgorges Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon Zeus’ opponents: the Titans (especially Atlas) with the exception of Themis and her son Prometheus Zeus on Mt. Olympus against Cronus on Mt. Othrys Titans imprisoned in Tartarus and Atlas condemned to hold up the sky GIGANTOMACHY GIGANTOMACHY GIANTS produced by EARTH when the blood from Uranus’ genitals were cut off and fell on the ground. GE­GENEIS (Greek word, which means “earth born” Ge =earth, gene >root that relates to birth Fierce battle> imprisonment of the giants under the earth, in volcanic regions >interpretation of myths as nature. GIANT ENCELADUS (which translates into “earthquake” under volcano of Mt. Aetna in Sicily. Great Altar of Zeus from Pergamon, Turkey, c.166-156 BCE, Berlin Museum (the whole altar taken from original site to Museum in Berlin) Reconstructed west front Museum Pergamon Altar­ BERLIN MUSEUM, Pergamon Altar­ BERLIN MUSEUM, GERMANY Athena, Gaia (Earth), and Nike kill a serpent-legged giant in the Pergamon Altar Gigantomachy Altar Pergamon Altar originally built in the Pergamon 2nd century BC in the Ancient Greek 2nd Ancient city of Pergamon Pergamon Modern City of Bergama in Turkey Excavated roughly the same time as Troy, end of 19th. Shipped out of the Ottoman Empire by the German archaeological team it was reconstructed to be exhibited in Berlin in 1910. Traditional Architectural Order inverted, gigantic frieze gigantic Depicts gigantomachy Depicts Political use of a myth in Hellenistic Times (2nd century BC, after Alexander the Great, Pergamum governed by successors of Alexander, the Attalids (Eumenes the II). Theme of Greek gods (like the dynasty of Attalids at Theme Pergamon) defending a natural order against the Giants who represented chaos . According to scholar Erika Simon and her book in According 1975 Pergamon und Hesiod, the altar of Pergamon Pergamon the draws exclusively on Hesiod's Theogony. According to Simon, the frieze is arranged According genealogically, Descendants of URANUS and Gaia TITANS and OLYMPIANS, on the South and East TITANS friezes, respectively. Serpent like forms>denote relation with Serpent Earth>serpent – chthonic (earthly) element Earth>serpent “When Zeus had driven the Titans from heaven, Typhoeus, according to HESIOD’s Typhoeus, according to HESIOD’s THEOGONY vast Gaea brought forth the youngest of her children through the love of Tartarus and the agency of golden Aphrodite. From the shoulders of this frightening dragon a hundred snake heads grew, flickering their dark tongues…In all the terrible heads voices emitted all kinds of sounds; for at one time he spoke so that the gods understood, at another his cries were those of a proud bull, sometimes he produced roars or a courageous lion, or …puppies, or he would hiss; and the great mountains resounded in echo” Fight between Zeus and Typhoeus Fight Thunder, lightning > Zeus struck and flogged Thunder, Typhoeus with blows, hurled him down, and vast earth gave a groan. earth A part of earth was burned, melted. Zeus hurled him part into broad Tartarus. into FROM TYPHOEUS arise the winds that blow the FROM rains; but not NOtus, Boreas and Zephyr who brings good weather, for they are sprung from the gods and a great benefit to mortals. From Typhoeus the evil winds> etiological/natural phenomenon explanation. winds> Linguistic similarity Typhoeus/Typhoon/typhon/ Linguistic wind wind Zeus and Typhoeus (Typhoios); Black-figure hydria (water jug), Archaic, Chalcidian black-figure hydria c. 540-530 BC. Munich, Antikensammlungen 59, same in next slide Antikensammlungen Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, Laconian Black Figure, Shape: Kylix Painter: Name vase of the Typhon Painter - Date: ca 560 - 500 BC Painter: - Monster Typhoeus depicted with multiple serpent legs and arms . Archaic Zeus with eagle & lightning, Athenian red-figure Zeus amphora – Red figured- CLASSICAL 5th B.C., Musée du amphora Louvre, Paris Louvre, Punishment of the Titans Atlas & Prometheus, Laconian (from region of Sparta) Sparta) black-figure amphora 6th B.C. ARCHAIC, Vatican City Museums The bronze original in the The National Archaeological Museum in Athens (inv. 15161) was retrieved in 1928 from a shipwreck in the sea off Cape Artemision in Greece. Zeus depicted about to throw the thunderbolt he is thought to have held in his right hand. A pregnant pause in motion was a popular theme in the art of the early Classical period. The viewer imagines the act completed The naked trained male body was the ideal of the time and the statue is a typical example of the ancient Greek habit of presenting gods in a human image. The bronze was originally polished and the statue should be imagined as a shining vision. The eyes are additions to the copy and show how the original eyes may have looked. Donated by Sir Arthur Evans in 1930, Ashmolean Museum. From Athens Archaeological Museum From Athens Archaeological Museum GIANT with serpent like feet Villa Romana del Casale Piazza Amerina, Sicily, Italy Mosai Date: ca 320 AD Period: Imperial Roman Roman ZEUS’ CHILDREN –to name a few who are gods. are METIS (Oceanid Nymph)+ ZEUS > ATHENA METIS ATHENA LETO (2nd generation Titan, PHOEBE’s daughter) +ZEUS > APOLLO, ARTEMIS APOLLO, MAIA (nymph) + ZEUS > HERMES MAIA HERMES HERA+ ZEUS > ARES, HEBE (=youth), HERA+ HEBE EILEITHYIA EILEITHYIA Underlined Gods part of the 12 Olympians. - MNEMOSYNE+ Zeus> Muses MNEMOSYNE+ Muses - Demeter+ Zeus> Persephone (queen of the Underworld, Demeter+ married to Hades, king of the Underworld) married ...
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