This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Anthropomorphism Anthropomorphism
Human form and character Idealization and Mirroring of physical and spiritual weaknesses. Mt. Olympus Olympian vs. chthonian (of the earth below) Food of the Gods:Ambrosia/ drink nectar/ blood: ichor Feel emotions, suffer pain and torment Even Zeus subject to Fates. Feels emotions, as mortals Accordining to Homer's Iliad, Sarpedon, a son of Zeus and a mortal woman, was killed by the Greek warrior Patroclus while fighting for the Trojans. Zeus could NOT avert the fate of his son. Lamented his son. Detail from an Athenian redfigure calyxcrater Detail from an Athenian redfigure calyxcrater c. 500 BC(early classical). New York, Metropolitan Museum SARPEDON A Lycian king at Troy, son of Zeus and Europa or a mortal Troy son Zeus woman. He is killed by Patroklos, wearing Achilles' armour. His body is Patroklos wearing Achilles armour. shown being carried from the field by Sleep and Death (Hypnos and shown Thanatos) who are sometimes shown as warrior figures, and winged. Thanatos) Animals associated with gods Animals associated with gods Eagle Zeus Peacock – Hera Owl – Athena Boar Ares Horses Poseidon Dove Aphrodite Roman JUNO (Greek HERA) with peacock, first century CE, said to be from Tunis Tunis The goddess is seated on a throne accompanied by a peacock; she wears a crown. The London, British Museum. London, Ancient coin depicting Athena’s owl Ancient coin depicting Athena’s owl (coin of Athens) ATHENA WITH OWL Douris Cup, Vatican c. 470 BCE ATHENA WITH OWL Douris Cup, Vatican c. 470 BCE the famous Douris Cup [c. 470 BCE] in Attic red figure from Cerveteri now in the the Vatican collection where she stands before a limp and regurgitated Jason, no match for the fleece-guarding dragon who is no match for her: for Divine Hierarchy Zeus Olympian gods (and important chthonian gods) Wondrous, terrifying beings like Gorgons, Medusa Nymphs Demigods, (Ex. Achilles, son of mortal Peleus and divine Mother Thetis) Heroes. Heracles a hero and demigod. Cult to distinguish between hero and demigod, cult for heroes. Zeus and Monotheism Sovereignty of Zeus Moral order of universe Suppliants, hospitality, oaths Monotheistic cast View of Zeus in religious poets and philosophers Stern Zeus of Hesiod Aeschylus’ Agamemnon “Zeus whoever he may be” Polytheistic cast in JudeoChristian religion Zeus and Monotheism Sovereignty of Zeus Moral order of universe Suppliants, hospitality, oaths Monotheistic cast View of Zeus in religious poets and philosophers Stern Zeus of Hesiod Xenophanes Aeschylus’ Agamemnon Polytheistic cast in JudeoChristian religion Xenophanes. Poet and philosopher presocratic period (archaic) P.131 Lenardon on anthropomorphism Criticism on Homer and Hesiod “mortals think that gods are born and have clothes and a voice and a body just like them. Ethiopian depiction, Thracians etc…One god, greatest among gods and mortals, not at all like them, either in mind or body” MYTHOLOGY HISTORY PHILOSOPHY Intertwined The intertwining of the three clear in HERODOTUS, fifth century HISTORIAN (father of Historiography) Legendary History of Herodotus History ofthe Persian Wars Story of Solon, Croesus, and Cyrus Herodotus as Myth Historian Influence of Homer and Tragedy Atys (Ate [“ruin” or “destruction”]); links with Attis and Adonis. Herodotus' story of Croesus (king of Lydia, considered himself the happiest of all men), Lenardon p. 138 His son Atys recalls a famous myth associated with a god who appears in a variety of guises in the ancient eastern Mediterranean. The myth involves the young male consort of a mother goddess figure. The young god is born, becomes the lover of the mother goddess, but then is killed in his prime while hunting a wild boar, which gores him in the groin. The mother goddess buries her beloved and mourns him. Other legendary folktales in Herodotus [box] The story of Arion and the dolphin Musician, connected with Dionysus and the dithyramb, the sacred choral song honoring the god Favor of Periander, tyrant of Corinth Plot against Arion Rescue by dolphin Historical figure of Periander and perhaps Arion Association of Dionysus and dolphins Connection with Poseidon The story of Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, get rid of his most precious possession, he did, the ring, then found it at the belly of a fish he was about to eat. Miraculous. He couldn’t avoid what is fated, found what he tried to cast away forever. The story of Candaules and Gyges Candaules, king of Lydia, boasted that his wife was the most beautiful. Arranged for his bodyguart GYges to see her naked without her knowing it. She became aware of the insult. Plotted with Gyges, Gyges killed Candaules and won the throne and the queen. ...
View Full Document