Unformatted text preview: Apollo and Delphi Apollo and Delphi Originally the site of Delphi oracle to GeThemis. The slayer of dragon represents the subsequent conquest by Apollo. Omphalos (“navel”): archaic stone, shaped like an egg, kept in the temple. Signifies Delphi as the center of the earth. Cretan sailors and the connection with the dolphin> After establishment of sanctuary at Crisa, Apollo was concerned about attendants to his service. Saw a ship passing. Transformed himself into a dolphin. At first men tried to throw the monstrous sight on board to the sea. Havoc on board. Men were led to Crisa, where he revealed himself. EPIPHANY in brightness and splendor. Apollo Delphinius. Men performed rituals and sacrifices. Story connects cult of Apollo with Crete, and provides an etymology for Delphi (connection with ‘Dolphin’). Panhellenic Sanctuary Pythian Games instituted in 6th c. BC at Delphi every 4 years (compare with Olympic Games instituted in 776 BC at Olympia) Sports Games and RITUALS connected. PYTHIAN Games PYTHIAN Games Included physical and Intellectual competitions Footraces, chariot races Musical agons (=contests), literary Dramatic presentations part of the festival. COMPETITION very important to ancient Greek spirit. Importance of both the physical as well as aesthetic components. Duality in nature of Apollo> physical strength and intellectuality. The Oracle and the Pythia at Delphi The Oracle and the Pythia at Delphi Consultation for personal and political issus The Pythia, priestess of Apollo uttered the responses of god Seat of prophecy: the Tripod, bowl supported by three legs. A tripod was a utensil of everyday life, fire could be lit beneath or inside the bowl for practical purposes> ritual importance. Pythia utters incoherent ravings in trance Priest transcribes Oracular utterances⇒epic meter (dactylic hexameter) to be communicated to the inquirer. Delphic Pythia sitting on a tripod, Delphic Pythia sitting on a tripod, attended by a supplicant Phocis Locris coin Delphi, c. 336 BC Phocis Locris coin Delphi, c. 336 BC depicting Apollo with lyre Apollo and CASSANDRA Apollo and CASSANDRA Cassandra, daughter of Priam, king of TROY. Apollo fell in love with her. Cassandra first agreed to give herself to the god. Apollo gave her the gift of prophecy. Then Cassandra changed her mind and rejected him. Apollo was doomed to prophecy that no one would believe. Apollo and Daphne Apollo and Daphne Story from Ovid’s Metamorphoses I, book 1. In the text, we have the dialogue between Apollo and Cupid (=Eros) both being shooters of arrows. Cupid: “Although, your arrows pierce every target, Apollo, mine will pierce you… Your glory inferior to mine.” Daphne, nymph, daughter of Peneus in Thessaly, was a companion of Diana (=Artemis). Theme of chastity. She wanted to remain a virgin, hating the marriage torch as if it were a disgrace. Theme of chastity –compare with Hippolytus. Apollo loved her. Daphne fled and prayed to her father, river Peneus. “Help and change me and destroy my beauty” Transformation into a tree, the laurel tree. Daphne story popular in Medieval times because of the moral overtone. Apollo the failed lover. Daphne changed into a laurel tree, YET Apollo still makes her HIS, his sacred tree. Apollo still declares victory, even if he can’t have her, takes possession of Daphne. He never got her as a maiden, but possessed her as a tree. Political understanding of this myth. A chronicle of brute force and its failure. The story of Apollo and Daphne, the first transformation after Deucalion and Pyrrha. Political meaning. Daphne like Rome. Politics transformed. The world of Augustan Rome, new imperial phase, a new world for Roman history, after the flood. Apollo & Daphne, Greco-Roman mosaic from Antioch Apollo 2nd-3rd A.D., Antakya Museum, Turkey ...
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- Fall '07
- Metamorphoses, Antioch, Antakya, Locris coin Delphi