Unformatted text preview: ARTEMIS ARTEMIS Beauty, Chastity Virginity Hunting Wildlife Bow and Arrows With Eileithyia they protect women in childbirth TWINS BIRTH OF ARTEMIS AND BIRTH OF ARTEMIS AND APOLLO Daughters of LETO (Leto was a daughter of Titans Coeus and Phoebe) Leto was wandering until she came to island DELOS, where the twins were born. Traditionally Artemis born first, and then assists her mother with the delivery of her brother (performs one of her functions as goddess of childbirth a role she shares with primary goddess of childbirth Eileithyia). NIOBE and her children NIOBE and her children Story told at length by Ovid (book 6 of the metamorphoses). Women of Thebes honored Leto and her children. The queen of Thebes, Niobe, mother of 7 sons and 7 daughters boasted (she had more children, Leto just 2). Hybris. Leto complained to Artemis and Apollo Apollo struck the sons, Artemis the daughters of Niobe. The youngest daughter was spared and turned to stone (transformation theme), taken to Phrygia. Death of the Niobids, Attic red-figured krater by the Niobid painter, ca 460 BC (classical), Louvre, Paris. Niobid ACTAEON ACTAEON Story in 3rd book of the METAMORPHOSES by Ovid (1st century CE) Actaeon was a hunter who saw Artemis naked as the goddess was bathing. “The nymphs, when they saw a man, beat their breasts and filled the forests with their screams. Surrounding Diana, the goddess was taller than they…Diana’s face flushed when she was spied naked… Actaeon was transformed into a stag He is killed by his former hunters, killed as stag. Theme of purity, chastity Hunting Hybristic act even in ignorance (seeing a goddess naked). Actaeon's death. Artemis drives a chariot drawn by a team of deer. To the right a man reports Actaeon's death to his parents Aristaeus and Autonoe. The scene is probably based on Aeschylus' lost play The Toxitides, which dealt with the story of Actaeon. The which Side A from an Attic red-figure volute crater, ca. 450–440 BC Side . LOUVRE Artemis killing Actaeon (Bell Crater, classical, Boston- Museum of Fine Arts) of Titian, Diana and Actaeon, c1556-9, National Gallery of Scotland National "Diane and Actaeon," by Jan Brueghel the "Diane and Actaeon," by Jan Brueghel the Elder and Hendrik Van Balen, sold at Sotheby’s RITUAL and ARTEMIS RITUAL and ARTEMIS ARTEMIS BRAURONIA Festival to honor Artemis every 4 years. Procession from Athens to Brauron (eastern coast of Attica) attested by archaeological findings. According to Euripides, Iphigeneia was the first priestess there. Evidence of vases that depict scenes of girls singing and dancing, in races, bears. Initiation rites? Myth that once a bear in the region of Brauron sacred to Artemis snatched a young girl (parthenos)=virgin, maiden, while she played with it. Her brothers killed the bear Plague fell in Athens. To be released, they were required to do the bear ritual. Girls had to become “bears” when 510 years old, served as attendants to the santuary. Brauron. On the right side of the photo you can see part of the foundations of the temple of Artemis foundations Brauron. The Doric stoa, eastern half. The stoa was built in last quarter of the 5th century B.C., but appears never to have been completely finished as it was planned. It was used for the storage and display of votive offerings and for dining. was View of sanctuary of BRAURON- On the left is the Doric stoa built in the last quarter of the 5th century B.C. built Roman copy of Greek statue attributed to Leochares ca 325 BC. , Louvre, Paris Louvre, Euripides’ Hippolytus Euripides’ Play by tragedian EURIPIDES. Hostility between Artemis and Aphrodite. Hippolytus a worshipper of Artemis, wants to remain chaste and engages in hunting. Opposition between the spheres of influence. Aphrodite makes Phaedra (Hippolytus’ stepmother) fall in love with him. Phaedra accuses Hippolytus for sexual advances on her, lying. For Hippolytus the thought of physical love for any woman would be abomination. Phaedra commits suicide but she leaves a note that falsely incriminates Hippolytus. Hippolytus dies by the curse of his father, Theseus who had failed to understand his son’s piety and chastity. Theseus discovers Phaedra's note and curses Hippolytus Discuss again the theme of talking as opposed to silence, Phaedra acts not by talking but by being silent, refer back to the questions about the “tongue” Theme of lying to ruin reputation as revenge. Father/son relation Artemis appears to her beloved follower Hippolytus, as he is dying, will establish a cult in his honor where virgin maidens will participate in rituals. Two opposing goddesses in nature. Are human beings at the mercy of divine conflict? Euripides’ criticism on ancient religion? Redfigured “krater” Hippolytus and the horses, from Redfigured “krater” Hippolytus and the horses, from Apulia, South Italy 340 BCPoseidon’s bull under the horses Phaedra (right) tells her nurse about her passion for Phaedra (right) tells her nurse about her passion for Hippolytus Wall Painting from Pompeii Phaedra and Hippolytus, 3rd century AD mosaic Phaedra and Hippolytus, 3 from Cyprus, villa of Dionysus The Nurse and Phaedra, Byzantine Mosaic, found in Madaba, The Nurse and Phaedra, Byzantine Mosaic, found in Madaba, Jordan, from the “Hippolytus Hall” a rich Byzantine mansion, found 1982 beneath the present day Church of the Virgin The mosaic depicts the legend of Phaedra and Hippolytus as dramatized by Euripides. On the right The mosaic depicts the legend of Phaedra and Hippolytus as dramatized by Euripides. On the right Aphrodite is seated beside Adonis, and is threatening with her slipper one of the Cupids presented to her by the Three Graces. On the left, a servant is carrying a basket of fruit and a dead partridge. One of the Cupids has his head in a beehive, a reference to a love poem by Theocritus. ...
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- Fall '07
- Metamorphoses, Diana, Artemis, Titian, Niobe, Actaeon