Unformatted text preview: 470-460 B.C., British Museum, London, England Creation of Pandora, interior of Cylix, Creation interior Cylix Creation of Pandora Creation of Pandora Story in Hesiod’s Theogony Consequence of Zeus’ anger at Prometheus for the theft of fire. “The renowned lame god, HEPHAESTUS, fashioned” Pandora OUT OF EARTH In LIKENESS OF a MAIDEN according to the will of ZEUS ATHENA clothed her, arranged an embroidered veil. GARLANDS OF FLOWERS around her head, Golden Crown, that Hephaestud had made, fashioning it with his hands Description of the Crown. “On it he wrought much intricate detail, of the countless animals which the land and the sea nourish; many he fixed on it, amazing creations, like living creatures with voices, and its radiant loveliness shone forth in profusion.” “When he had fashioned the beautiful evil in recompense for the blessing of fire, he led her out where the other gods and mortals were” Reaction: “AMAZEMENT as they saw the sheer TRICK, from which human beings could not escape. From her is the race of the female sex, the ruinous tribes of women, a great affliction… conspirators in evil works.” Second evil: who ever escapes marriage and women comes to ruinous old age without anyone to care for him. PANDORA, means “all gifts” IN Hesiod’s WORKS AND DAYS , other epic poem, more on Pandora Zeus addresses in that poem Prometheus and tells him that as punishment for the fire “I shall give them (humans) an evil in which all may take delight as they embrace it.” According to HESIOD’s Works and According to HESIOD’s Days 7th c. BCE Zeus ordered HEPHAESTUS to mix earth with water and implant in it a human voice and the form of a maiden with a face like an immortal goddess. He ordered ATHENA to teach her skills of weaving He ordered APHRODITE to shed grace He also commanded HERMES to give her the the mind of a bitch and the character of a thief. When done, Zeus sent a message to send Pandora as a gift to EPIMETHEUS, the brother of Prometheus. Prometheus had told his brother NEVER to accept a gift from Olympian Zeus and send it back, in case it was evil for the mortals. Previously races of humans without evils and hard work Epimetheus received the gift. Pandora “removed the great cover of the jar with her hands and scattered the evils within and for mortals devised sorrowful troubles. Hope alone remained within there under the edge of the jar and did not fly . For the lid of the jar stopped her before she could. But the other sorrows wander. Pandora’s BOX Pandora’s BOX Hesiod uses the word PITHOS, which translated into JAR. A Pithos was a large earthenware vase, container for storing oil or wine. Confusion with the word “pyxis” which means a portable chest. Interpretations of the story Interpretations of the story Theme of CRAFT THEME of Crafted woman/crafting (evils) First woman created as EVIL> implications First woman in Greek mythology like EVE in the Bible responsible for evil. Feminist Criticism underlines the underlying cultural ideologies. FEMINIST THEORIES> Woman is an afterthought, related with Epimetheus, an afterthought Froma Zeitlin’s Interpretation Froma Zeitlin’s Interpretation
Pandora’s ontological status NOT a self evident or spontaneous fact. Dangers of sexuality Problem of the origin of woman and Woman as origin embedded in narratives of Hesiod. Pandora is made to embody the separation between mortal and immortal realms of existence, but also continues to blur the lines between them. “Fashioned by the gods to resemble them in the beauty of her allure, she is both an imitation and an original production, both a copy and a model” Vernant’s Interpretation Vernant’s Interpretation Emphasis on OIKOS , the household. Cultural interpretation. The jar represents the Greek Oikos, the house. The jar replicates the domestic space of the household to which woman is consigned and in which she is confined. Elpis=HOPE corresponds to the child who resides inside its mother’s womb Psychoanalytic interpretation. Idea of uterus as a jar, a container Daniel Boyarin argues that the opening of the jar represents the breaching of Pandora’s virginity. “The text DOES not RECORD the first SEXUAL ACT between a woman and man because by doing so it would have to reveal that which it seems determined to suppress, the simple fact that men are also agents in the performance of sex and thus responsible, at least equally with women, for whatever baneful effects it is held to have” Combination of Structuralist approaches that stress binary oppositions Mortals/Immortals Open/close, Evil/Good, Originality/Copy Psychoanalytic and Cultural/Feminist approaches. Creation of Pandora Creation of Pandora, interior of Cylix, 470460 B.C., British Museum, London, England Vase in Oxford Ashmolean MuseumClassical red-figured vase Classical British Museum Vase, Pandora appears “stiff” Aphrodite British Museum Vase, Pandora appears “stiff” Aphrodite adorns her with wreath, Ares, Poseidon Calyx crater, attributed to the Niobid Painter British Museum Calyx Crater, Pandora on top row (see British Museum Calyx Crater, Pandora on top row (see previous slide J.H. Waterhouse (18491917) ...
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