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Chapter 1
Statistics(3)
 1)data;2)functions of data, such as the mean and range;3)techniques for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data for subsequent decision making;4)the
science of creating and applying such techniques. Descriptive statistics(7)
tools for depicting or summarizing data so that they can be more readily comprehended. Induction
(7)Observe
a sample and generalize all elements in the population. Inferential statistics
(8)tools for inferring the properties of one or more populations by inspecting samples drawn from the
populations. Each element of the range=value
.
Range
(11)the set of elements for which the variable stands. Variable can take on different values but a constant is a characteristic that
does not vary. Qualitative variable
(12) mutually exclusive(not overlapping; element cannot be in more than one category) and exhaustive(element must be in one of the categories).
Ordered or unordered.
Quantitative variable
(13) discrete(countable, finite, whole numbers)or continuous(uncountable,infinite;temp.,length). Nominal
(14)Distinct, assigning to
mutually exclusive and exhaustive equivalence classes so that those in the same class are considered to be equivalent to one another; property of distinctness, unordered/qualitative
variable, eye color, gender, personality types, primary taste qualities, racial origin. Onetoone transformation
replacing nominal labels such as “men” and “women” with numbers such
as 1 and 2; any labels and numbers can be used for transformation. Ordinal
(15)assigning elements to mutually exclusive and exhaustive equivalence classes that are ranked or ordered
with respect to one another; property of distinctness and order; contain more info than nominal. ordered qualitative variable(Military Rank, Highschool rank.)
Strictly increasing
monotonic transformation
permits one to replace the original set of numbers with new numbers as long as the new numbers have the same order as the original numbers; you can
replace the rankings of political candidates 1,2,3,4 with 23,45,67,89 b/c only the order of the numbers is important, not the distance b/w the numbers. Interval
(16) properties of
distinctness and order and equal interval. defining a unit of measurement such as a calendar year or 1
o
F Altitude and determining the number of units required to represent the difference
between equivalence classes. Starting point or origin arbitrarily defined and doesn’t correspond to absence of the measured characteristic so not all arithmetic operations permissible.
Positive linear transformation
variable, X, consists of multiplying X by a pos constant (
b)
and adding a constant (
a)
to the product; X’=a+bX. Intervaldiscrete quantitative variable.
Ratio
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 Spring '07
 kirk

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